What are iOS apps written on?

What programming languages ​​are applications written in??

apps, written

If you are planning or have already decided to become a mobile developer. The first thing you will have to face is the choice of the platform and language in which you plan to write programs, but first, let’s find out in which programming languages ​​applications are written.

What programming languages ​​are there and how to choose them?

Which development platform you choose will determine which language you learn. Below is a list of all languages ​​for iOS and Android, their advantages and disadvantages are listed, so that you can evaluate each of them and choose the most suitable for you.

However, there are exceptions. There are cross-platform languages ​​that allow you to write code for both Android and iOS apps.

As a disadvantage, one can single out the fact that programs written in similar languages ​​will work much less quickly and reduce the productivity of working with the system, in contrast to programs written for a specific operating system.

Python

Although Android does not support Python, its use does not seem to be an exception for building Android applications. Since using the Kivy framework, you can compile code written in pure Python into almost any required format.

The presence of a large number of different libraries allows you to build native interfaces on it, which significantly improves the functionality of applications.

  • Suitable for both native and web applications;
  • Allows you to build native interfaces;
  • Easy-to-read syntax;
  • Easy to learn.
  • Not an official Android language and does not support it without the Kivy framework;
  • Not particularly in demand.

What language are Android apps written in??

First of all, let’s answer the question of which programming languages ​​for Android applications are most suitable:

  • Java;
  • HTML5 / JavaScript;
  • C #;
  • Kotlin;
  • C / C;
  • BASIC;
  • Python.

Anroid developers are currently more in demand in the IT world, due to the fact that Anroid-based smartphones currently occupy two-thirds of the mobile device market.

Learning the languages ​​listed below will get you started writing code for games, applications, and programs. And in order to make it easier for you to choose, we have compiled a list of their advantages and disadvantages.

Often referred to as the official language of the Android operating system, Java code is considered one of the most sought after by Android developers today. Almost all mobile programming languages ​​are built on Java, as it has the widest functionality in mobile programming.

As much as you would not like, but if you decide to write code for Android, you will have to get acquainted with this language anyway.

In the case of mobile programming, this language is supported by the Android Studio framework. It is a type of software, so-called. development environment. To get acquainted with the work in which you have to in any case, if you decide to program for Android. The Android SDK toolkit will also help you with this.

Due to the fact that manuals, paid and free Java libraries are not difficult to find, with a basic set of knowledge, it will not be difficult to create programs in this language.

  • The basis of all mobile programming languages, learning which will simplify the subsequent learning of languages;
  • Supported by Android Studio and the Android SDK.

Swift

Swift is primarily the official coding language for iOS, introduced by Apple back in 2014. Borrowing most of its content from Objective-C and C, it has become incredibly functional and easy to learn.

Helps to avoid errors in the code even at the stage of application development thanks to the strong typing of objects.

It has very convenient functionality that makes the development of iOS applications a simple and fun process, including multiple return values, closures and generics. It remains the most demanded language for iOS app development even in 2019. most iOS developers prefer it.

  • Simplified navigation;
  • Easy to learn;
  • Easy-to-read syntax;
  • Interoperability with Objective-C;
  • Dynamic library support.
  • Frequent updates require regular learning of new material;
  • “Bridge” that allows you to interact with Objective-C slows down the process of building a program.

With its help, you can write not only for Android, but also for iOS, which allows you to create cross-platform applications.

  • Combined with Unity 3D, it allows you to create games;
  • It is imperative to know Java to learn it.
  • Due to the fact that C # is cross-platform, applications on it will not be as optimized as applications written in the official Apple languages.

Kotlin

An excellent language, which, like C # in combination with Java, becomes even better, its main advantage is the complete absence of shortcomings, which allows you to create programs for Android almost without hindrance.

Compilation to JVM bytecode, like Java, gives you the opportunity to port your early Java code to Kotlin and remove boilerplate code, which will make the syntax more readable.

It was officially introduced by Google in 2017, positioning itself as the next official language for writing applications for Android after Java.

Due to its relatively recent appearance, at the moment it is in great demand since There are not so many developers who are familiar with Kotlin already. Thanks to this, it will not be difficult for you to find a job with proper knowledge of Kotlin.

Learning it will take you not so much time as learning Java, and it will be much easier, however, to understand it, knowledge of Java is again a must.

  • In demand among programmers;
  • Easier to learn than Java;
  • Compilation to JVM;
  • Compatible with Android Studio.

By providing SDK and NDK development environments in Android Studio, Google enables C and C developers to create native mobile apps. However, they are not adapted for full-fledged application development, but serve only to create a library, which in the future using Java can be tied to the main code, which will significantly reduce the time for writing code.

Code written in C and C is run through the mobile device itself, which gives more control over such elements as sensors, gestures, memory and others.

By themselves, they are not easy enough to study and use, due to the fact that they were not originally intended for the development of mobile applications.

  • In conjunction with Java, it allows you to reduce the code, which will speed up the program’s performance.
  • Difficult to learn;
  • Does not allow you to fully create an application, but only to link libraries to the application.

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Olesya Petrochenkova

Olesya Petrochenkova

There are almost 2,500 programming languages ​​known in the observable universe. Man was looking for the most convenient way of setting tasks for computers, but in the pursuit of an ideal, people lost their unification. The Tower of Babel collapsed. Particularly difficult for beginners. which language to choose?

Yet

What language to program a beginner in

C (C plus)

C. is a typed programming language that is also suitable for developing iPhone applications.

Typically, C is used to develop logic problems and modules. It handles complex algorithms with ease. C (C plus) is popular when programming on iOS. It significantly improves productivity and optimizes tasks. If the application has complex functionality, complex logical interconnection of elements, C is often used for excellent optimization.

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It will not be possible to completely write a finished working application. The programming languages ​​described above are used to create the user interface.

What language are iOS apps written in? All three. Swift is used most often, since Apple is actively promoting it, but many applications are created in Objective-C, and it will be relevant for a long time, and C is used as an additional tool.

IOS programming languages

The iOS programming language was defined by Apple. Developers are presented with several options: Objective-C, Swift and C. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages, suitable for performing specific tasks. All of them relate to object-oriented programming, where the basic principles of development are carried out, including the grouping of similar tasks into classes.

Modern iPhone App Development: To-do list app (coding tutorial as done at FANG)

AppCode

AppCode is a popular iOS app development environment. It was invented by JetBrains. The main feature is excellent Xcode compatibility. When developing in one environment, it is easy to migrate an application to another. This environment understands any programming language for iOS, contains a large set of tools and functions.

  • stable reliable operation of all functions;
  • autocompletion;
  • correct integration with bug trackers;
  • errors and warnings are detailed, their detection and correction is accelerated;
  • the application is immediately assembled for the operating system.
  • there is no Interface Builder, for this you will have to use Xcode in parallel;
  • the application is also launched on Xcode, there are no functions of its own;
  • there is no visual debugger;
  • this development environment is paid;
  • irregular language update.

Development environment for iOS applications

Objective-C

Objective-C is an iOS programming language that was developed back in the 80s of the last century. For a long time, it was the most popular development language at Apple. It appeared by crossing C and Smalltalk. In fact, it was originally thought to be only a C add-on that allows you to expand the capabilities.

The code is maintained, updated regularly, and changes are straightforward. A lot of documentation and technical literature, a large community where people help each other learn this language. It is very similar to any other in the C family, you just need to learn the syntax. In addition, Objective-C can be used inside projects written in Swift because they are compatible.

If the user is just starting to learn programming for iOS, there will be difficulties in understanding, he is difficult to learn. Performance is not very fast, and the build process itself slows down if there is an interaction with Swift files, because a kind of “adapter” is used that translates code from Swift to Objective-C.

Native Application Development

Unlike cross-platform, native applications are developed specifically for one operating system. They have many advantages: fast optimization and correct operation, no delays in animation and fast response, correct access to the device hardware. camera, microphone and other functions. Also, native applications have a platform-native interface.

Cross-platform development is relevant if the budget is too limited and you need to go to several platforms at once. In other cases, it is better to opt for native solutions. Programming for iOS will make it possible to create a high-quality high-speed application with wide functionality.

Swift

Swift is the modern iOS programming language used by most developers. It appeared in 2014, and has absorbed the best qualities of the C and Objective-C languages. The main feature of this language is that at the programming stage the number of errors is significantly reduced due to the strict typing of objects. A large number of modern functions have been added: closures, generics and others. The iOS programming process has become more flexible and fun.

It is very fast, the file navigation is clear and simplified, it is built entirely in C so it is easy to read. Outwardly, it resembles English as much as possible, its syntax is simplified and understandable. The size of the code is reduced by being concise. It has the ability to use templates, it mixes easily with Objective-C and has an excellent level of security. Using dynamic libraries allows programs to run faster and more stable.

Due to the fact that Swift is a young iOS programming language, updates and changes are constantly taking place, so you have to carefully monitor the finished programs. There are still quite a few developers who use Objective-C as it is more stable.

PROJECT CREATION

And so, as mentioned earlier, we need an Apple computer and an installed Xcode application, which is freely available in the App Store.

Let’s see what Xcode is and why we need it. Xcode is a software development environment that includes: a code editor, a graphical interface editor, a version control system, and tools for debugging and laying out applications we have written. In short, it is the program in which 90% of all interactions in the development of applications for the Apple operating system family are conducted.

And so, starting the software development environment, we see a welcome window where we can open, create or clone a project. We need to create a new one by clicking on “Create a new Xcode project”. Yes, the entire Xcode interface is in English, so I advise you to stock up on an English-Russian dictionary.

The next step we see this window: where we are offered to choose the platform and type of application. We need the iOS software (at the top of the dialog) and the Single View App. Any application starts with Single View and then grows to 50 View App.

The next step we need to enter the name of the project, the organization in which we develop it, select the language and enable / disable additional functions.

Python

  • SL4A is a library that allows you to create and run scripts written in various scripting languages ​​right on Android devices.
  • Kivy is a library for developing applications that run on all platforms. The library is distributed open source. The library focuses on innovative user interfaces for touch devices.

The library is based on Cython (C extension for Python). Currently supports Linux, Windows, Mac OS X and Android. Graphics engine built on OpenGL ES 2.

  • RubyMotion is set of tools for iOS development in Ruby. It consists of a runtime that implements Ruby functionality inside iOS.
  • Ruboto. Build apps for Android devices. This library uses JRuby to run apps on Android.

Looking to master the leading mobile technology stack? We recommend the augmented profession “Mobile Application Developer”.

Now in the era of mobile phones, various gadgets, Smart TVs and much more, developers have the opportunity to develop and write in these areas. Several years ago, it was possible to write for mobile devices only in native languages, for Android it was Java, and for iOS it was Objective-C, but now everything has changed. At least Swift has appeared for iOS, you can learn more about it on the free two-hour intensive.

Let’s look at which programming languages ​​what can be used.

Python

  • SL4A is a library that allows you to create and run scripts written in various scripting languages ​​right on Android devices.
  • Kivy is a library for developing applications that run on all platforms. The library is open source. The library focuses on innovative user interfaces for touch devices.

The library is based on Cython (C extension for Python). Currently supports Linux, Windows, Mac OS X and Android. Graphics engine built on OpenGL ES 2.

  • RubyMotion is set of tools for iOS development in Ruby. It consists of a runtime that implements Ruby functionality inside iOS.
  • Ruboto. Build Apps for Android Devices. This library uses JRuby to run apps on Android.

Looking to master the leading mobile technology stack? We recommend the augmented profession “Mobile Application Developer”.

Let’s, for a start, understand the relevance of developing a device for Apple as a whole. After all, today there are more than 2 million applications in the App Store.

Every self-respecting developer wants to make the highest quality application with beautiful animations, a well-designed user interface and maximum performance.

Javascript

For Javascript, I highlight the following libraries:

  • PhoneGap is a free open-source framework for building mobile apps by Nitobi Software. Allows you to create applications for mobile devices using JavaScript, HTML5 and CSS3 without knowledge of “native” programming languages ​​(for example, Objective-C) and for all mobile operating systems (iOS, Android, Bada, etc.)
  • ReactNative. development from. which allows you to write for all existing platforms. The main difference from PhoneGap, for example, is that it uses native system components, rather than creating a WebView component.
  • NativeScript is a library that allows you to create cross-platform applications using XML, CSS, JavaScript. Native script solves the same problem as PhoneGap, but their approaches are different. Phonegap uses the browser engine to render the UI (you actually get a web page), NativeScript uses native rendering, uses native UI elements.
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Javascript

For Javascript, I highlight the following libraries:

  • PhoneGap is a free open-source framework for building mobile apps by Nitobi Software. Allows you to create applications for mobile devices using JavaScript, HTML5 and CSS3 without knowledge of “native” programming languages ​​(for example, Objective-C) and for all mobile operating systems (iOS, Android, Bada, etc.)
  • ReactNative. development from. which allows you to write for all existing platforms. The main difference from PhoneGap, for example, is that it uses native system components, rather than creating a WebView component.
  • NativeScript is a library that allows you to create cross-platform applications using XML, CSS, JavaScript. Native script solves the same problem as PhoneGap, but their approaches are different. Phonegap uses the browser engine to render the UI (you actually get a web page), NativeScript uses native rendering, uses native UI elements.

What if you want more?

Using scientific typing and Google, you can extend the above sequence of actions and create a more functional application. But you can only use it on your own devices.

If you want to create high-quality iOS apps for mainstream use, you have to learn!

You can start getting into the topic with free webinars on mobile development. Register and watch:

Better yet, sign up for a free Objective C. TO-DO List app. It consists of 16 lessons with homework, which are checked by the teacher.

(4.57 out of 5, rated: 7)

Now in the era of mobile phones, various gadgets, Smart TV and much more, developers have the opportunity to develop and write in these areas. Several years ago, it was possible to write for mobile devices only in native languages, for Android it was Java, and for iOS it was Objective-C, but now everything has changed. At least Swift has appeared for iOS, you can learn more about it on the free two-hour intensive.

Let’s look at which programming languages ​​what can be used.

We look at the finished application on the device

Now you can see how the application works on the device. Before following the instructions, make sure you have the latest versions of XCode and iOS.

We go to xCode. Preferencies. Accounts and add your Apple ID:

We connect the iOS device to the computer:

Select the desired device in the list and click on the start button. We are waiting for a while.

If you get a message about security problems, then on the iOS device go to Settings. Basic. Manage the device and allow the launch of applications from the developer with your Apple ID:

We go to the desktop and find the icon of the new application:

Disconnect the device from the computer. Now the application can be used.

DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT OVERVIEW

We have our main workspace open and let’s figure out what we have here. Let’s divide the whole application into several parts: top, left, right, bottom and middle.

At the top of the workspace, you can see the buttons for starting or stopping the application, the launch settings field, which consists of two parts: what to launch, what to launch on.

We also see the status bar, in which you can observe the current task that the development environment is performing, to the right we can see the editor view settings: standard editor, editor with assistant and view changes in the version control system, and there are also buttons to show / hide parts environments that we will consider next: bottom (debug information), right (navigation) and left (utilities)

On the left we see several buttons that will switch the functionality of the left panel, namely:

  • Navigating files and folders
  • Version control system
  • Class hierarchy in the project
  • Search by project
  • Build warning and error notifications
  • Automated tests
  • Debugging
  • Breakpoints
  • Assembly logs

On the right, we have two parts: the top and the bottom. The entire right panel is called utilities. At the top, we will see the settings for the selected file and / or user interface element. At the bottom of the utilities, we see the UI elements that we can use.

At the bottom of the development environment, we can see debug information, application logs, and other useful information to check that the application is working correctly. You can open the lower part using the penultimate button at the top of the application, and also at startup, this panel opens automatically.

And in the main (central) part of the environment, we can observe the editor in which the code is written and the work on the user interface of the application is carried out.

And in the main (central) part of the environment, we can observe the editor in which the code is written and the work on the user interface of the application is carried out.

  • Identity
  • Display Name. the name of the application that will be displayed on the home screen of the device
  • Bundle ID. Unique identifier that will be used in the App Store
  • Version. the current version of the project, which is being maintained using semantic versioning
  • Build. Build number, which should be increased by one with each installation of the application on the device
  • Signing
  • Automatically manage signing. automatic management of application signature
  • Team. the name of your team
  • Provisioning profile. profile for signing the application
  • Signing Certificate. a certificate that allows you to sign an application with Apple
  • Deployment Info
  • Deployment Target is the minimum iOS version on which the application can be installed
  • Devices. Device types
  • iPhone
  • iPad
  • Universal
  • Main Interface. Storyboard file from which the application will start after
  • Device Orientation. Possible device orientations when working with the application
  • Portrait
  • Upside down
  • Landscape counterclockwise
  • Album clockwise
  • Status Bar Style. Bar status color (top information bar with time, operator and battery)
  • Light coloured
  • Dark
  • Hide
  • App Icons and Launch Images
  • App Icons Source. application icon
  • Launch Screen File. the screen that is shown while the application is being launched
  • iOS Tutorial (2020): How To Make Your First App

    We will not need the rest of the items yet.

    Now that we have figured out what our development environment consists of, we can start creating our “Hello World” application.

    If you are interested in ready-made templates, then you should pay attention to our review of online constructors, with the help of which you can develop an application for your phone or tablet yourself.

    What applications are usually written on for the iOS platform

    In order to become a developer of programs that can run on devices running iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, macOS, watchOS, you need to master Objective-C and / or Swift. It is in these programming languages ​​that applications for iOS are written. Both of these languages ​​are object-oriented, and allow similar tasks to be grouped together in the process of writing code, which in turn simplifies the task of developers and speeds up their work. Objective-C is older, and was first introduced back in the 80s of the last century.

    Gradually, it was refined and became the main one for Apple, therefore, using Objective-C, you can create applications for any OS devices of the “apple” corporation. The advantages of this language include a high degree of code maintainability, a huge base of training materials and a large community, similarity with the C language family, compatibility with the younger Swift language.

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    In 2014, Apple introduced a new programming language called Swift. According to the developers, this language has absorbed the best from the popular Objective-C and C, and at the same time received more powerful and convenient functionality, more modern tools.

    The main advantages of this language include high speed of program development, code reduction, better readability, support for dynamic libraries, and improved security. Swift and Objective-C are compatible, so they can be used even within the same project.

    The Swift language continues to evolve, and more and more developers are switching to it or starting their career with it. Apple itself relies on Swift, but it’s definitely not worth completely abandoning Objective-C.

    What are iOS apps written on?

    Most of the mobile application market is occupied by native development, which is “sharpened” to work on devices running certain operating systems. The most popular operating systems now are iOS, which runs all Apple devices, and Android. The latest OS is successfully used by many companies and is more versatile, while iOS remains an exclusive Apple product.

    When creating programs for these platforms, developers use different programming languages ​​that have significant differences, which is why iOS specialists will not develop products for Android, and vice versa. In this article, we will try to figure out what iOS apps do and what development tools programmers use to improve their work.

    Development environment

    Now you know what iOS applications are developed on, and you can proceed to get acquainted with the development environments used by programmers. The most popular integrated development environment (IDE) is a free Xcode product made by Apple itself.

    Xcode is a fairly convenient application with an impressive set of useful tools that significantly speed up and simplify the process of writing programs. In one environment, you can write an application, conduct testing and optimization, and build it immediately on the desired iOS device.

    The single window interface greatly simplifies the work of the developer, and in the process of writing the code, the program will indicate to the programmer the error, if any. XCode integrates the IB (Interface Builder) application, which allows you to develop graphical interfaces, customize styles and fonts.

    If you need to work with maps to create your application, Xcode provides a useful feature to simulate geolocation. Thanks to the built-in simulator, the programmer will be able to test his development, and the debugger will help to find errors and possible flaws in the layout.

    And these are just the main advantages of this iOS application development environment. The main competitor of XCode is the development of JetBrains. AppCode with excellent autocompletion, good integration with issue trackers, and detailed error descriptions. But this IDE is unlikely to be used as the main and only one, and in most cases developers return to Xcode.

    Obscura Camera. manual mode and minimal effects

    Compared to other cameras with advanced manual settings, this one stands out in three nuances: firstly, it has the most minimalistic interface that fans will definitely like; secondly, you do not need special knowledge to use it; thirdly, it works so fast that it’s even scary.

    Special features of the app include flexible control of focus and exposure, built-in level for setting the horizon mowing line, flexible choice of formats for saving images, selection of settings for white balance, as well as a visual histogram of shades, net mowing line and much more.

    It should be noted that there is an extensive set of filters that can be used in real time. They will make it possible to give each shot the necessary emotional shade. For example, there is the Autumn option, which is the right time to use it in the city parks of your city.

    Halide Mark II. Powerful Smart Camera

    In 2019, Halide became one of the best programs of the year according to the App Store moderators. This is not surprising, because she made it possible to get really interesting shots without deep knowledge of professional photography. The second version of the application is already available today, and it has changed.

    I personally liked the new features for working with portraits and background blur. The developers have taught the program to interact not only with human faces, but also with animals, as well as inanimate objects. The results are really interesting.

    The companion of the application, which can be used on the Apple Watch, also deserves special attention. Unlike the ProCam 8, which offers only a remote control to release the shutter, the Halide Mark II displays a full-fledged viewfinder on the smartwatch screen, which allows you to change the composition of the frame.

    VSCO is your favorite photo editor with a built-in camera

    The overwhelming majority of users refer to VSCO only as a tool for post-processing photos. In this regard, the application has long gained popularity due to the advanced filter system, as well as the ability to copy a preset for processing from one picture to another.

    However, few people know that VSCO has a decent snapshot tool built in. It supports RAW shooting, manual focus and ISO, focus, white balance, brightness and more. All these features can be used without the need for additional payment.

    Separately, it should be noted the intellectual work of each of the tools presented. This makes it possible to create really high-quality images without flares and other misunderstandings, even without specific skills in professional photography. Definitely in the piggy bank.

    Specter Camera. Neural Networks and Long Exposure

    Moving from manual apps to other creative shooting tools. Let’s start with the Specter Camera from the developers of Halide Mark II. This application is designed to get long exposure simulated frames using neural networks. The results are often very interesting.

    Why am I talking about imitation? The fact is that the hardware capabilities of the camera built into the iPhone are limited by its dimensions. Therefore, you have to use software. This and other applications take multiple pictures and stitch them together in a special way to achieve the desired effect.

    The result is impressive. Using a slow shutter speed, you can create the effect of water movement in the frame, get rid of cars on the road, create impressive light patterns using a flashlight or other source. All in all, the scope for creative use is impressive.

    Focos. portrait mode games with blur effects

    This is an application that is designed to be as flexible as possible with depth of field, regardless of the camera being used. The results are really interesting.

    To begin with, using this program you can create a portrait photo even on an iPhone that does not support this feature. The program will determine the depth of space automatically and make it possible to change visual plans, depending on your needs.

    Special attention should be paid to the possibility of imitating the cult lenses intended for SLR cameras and mirrorless cameras. It allows you to create a unique bokeh pattern in the area that is blurred. This alone is worth a try.

    ProCamera. National Geographic Recommended Camera

    A manual shooting app that’s been in the App Store for over a decade. During this time, it was called “an essential travel app” by National Geographic, and “the favorite of professional photographers” by The New York Times. There is nothing surprising.

    In terms of functional set, ProCamera personally reminds me very much of ProCam 8. Nevertheless, it is more understandable and easier to use. You have to pay for this with a slightly lower performance, but the difference is reduced when using modern iPhone models.

    Special attention should be paid to its own HDR mode, within which the program independently makes several frames at once with different exposure values, and then glues them into one image. The output is a really decent result without overexposure and too dark areas.