Wi-Fi bluetooth connect. Can I Share Internet Via Bluetooth? (Solved)

Networking Basics: Wi-Fi and Bluetooth

A wireless networking card is required to use a wireless network, FreeBSD will also need to be configured to the correct wireless network support. The correct module will need to be modified, depending on the type of networking card. The most commonly used wireless devices are those that use parts made by Atheros. These devices are supported by ath(4) and require the following line to be added to /boot/loader.conf :

If unsure about the device, you can identify many common wireless adaptors through the use of the sysctl(8) net.wlan.devices variable:

To load support for a different type of wireless device, specify the module for that device. This example is for devices based on the Intersil Prism parts (wi(4)) driver:

Note: A list of available wireless drivers and supported adapters can be found in the FreeBSD Hardware Notes, available on the Release Information page of the FreeBSD website.

In addition, the modules that implement cryptographic support for the security protocols to use must be loaded. These are intended to be dynamically loaded on demand by the wlan(4) module. To load these modules at boot time, add the following lines to /boot/loader.conf:

wlan_wep_load=YES wlan_ccmp_load=YES wlan_tkip_load=YES

Information about the wireless device should appear in the boot messages, like this:

wi-fi, bluetooth, connect, share, internet

ath0: mem 0x88000000-0x8800ffff irq 11 at device 0.0 on cardbus1 ath0: [ITHREAD] ath0: AR2413 mac 7.9 RF2413 phy 4.5

Connecting to a Network:

Open Networks

Directly connecting to an unsecure network, while not recommended, is extremely common. It’s also a very simple process on FreeBSD. In this example I’ll beconnecting to the John F Kennedy International Airport’s free Wi-Fi.

Start by finding the name of the network:

This will look for available networks and return a list, In this case, we want to connect to the JFK free Wi-Fi so we’ll use:

ifconfig wlan0 ssid _Free JFK Wi-Fi

Hopefully you will see that it’s joined, and running ifconfig ath0 will show that it’s associated. You can then get an address with:


Most home/private networks will rely on these security protocols. Connecting a computer to an existing WPA/WPA2/Personal wireless network is a very common situation.

  • Obtain the SSID (Service Set Identifier) and PSK (Pre-Shared Key) from the network administrator, these may also be listed on the router.
  • Add an entry for this network to /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf. If the file does not exist, create it. Replace myssid and mypsk with the SSID and PSK provided by the network administrator.
  • Note: If the wireless network is hidden, add an additional line to indicate that the network is not publicly visible.
  • Add entries to /etc/rc.conf to configure the network on startup. Make sure to use the correct wireless adapter as identified earlier (this example will use the Atheros ath0 wireless adapter).

wlans_ath0=wlan0 ifconfig_wlan0=WPA SYNCDHCP

FreeBSD as an Access Point:

FreeBSD can act as an Access Point (AP) in order to act as a gateway or to eliminate the need to purchase AP hardware. Before an Access Point can be set up, the kernel mu

Before configuring a FreeBSD machine as an AP, the kernel must be configured with the appropriate networking support for the wireless card as well as the security protocols being used. This mode is only supported by native FreeBSD wireless drivers.

After setting up wireless networking, you can check if the device supports host-based access point mode:

# ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 # ifconfig wlan0 list caps drivercaps=6f85edc1HOSTAP,AHDEMO,TXPMGT,SHSLOT,SHPREAMBLE,MONITOR,MBSS,WPA1,WPA2,BURST,WME,WDS,BGSCAN,TXFRAG cryptocaps=1f

This output displays the card’s capabilities. The HOSTAP word confirms that this wireless card can act as an AP.

The wireless device can only be put into hostap mode during the creation of the network pseudo-device, so a previously created device must be destroyed first:

then regenerated with the correct option before setting the other parameters:

# ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev ath0 wlanmode hostap # ifconfig wlan0 inet netmask ssid freebsdap mode 11g channel 1

Use ifconfig(8) again to see the status of the wlan0 interface:

# ifconfig wlan0 wlan0: flags=8843 metric 0 mtu 1500 ether 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast media: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Ethernet autoselect mode 11g hostap status: running ssid freebsdap channel 1 (2412 Mhz 11g) bssid 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac country US ecm authmode OPEN privacy OFF txpower 21.5 scanvalid 60 protmode CTS wme burst dtimperiod 1.dfs

The hostap parameter indicates the interface is running in the host-based access point mode.

The interface configuration can be done automatically at boot time by adding the following lines to /etc/rc.conf :

wlans_ath0=wlan0 create_args_wlan0=wlanmode hostap ifconfig_wlan0=inet netmask ssid freebsdap mode 11g channel 1

Once the AP is configured, initiate a scan from another wireless machine to find the AP.

USB Tethering

Many cellphones can share data connection over USB, FreeBSD provides support through a variety of protocols:

Before attaching a device, load the appropriate driver into the kernel:

iPhone 12/12 Pro: How to Bluetooth Tethering to Share Internet Connection With Macbook/iMac

# kldload if_urndis # driver generally used by Android™ device # kldload if_ipheth # driver used by Apple® devices # kldload if_cdce # driver often used in older devices

Once the device is attached ue 0 will be available for use like a normal network device. Be sure that the “USB tethering” option is enabled on the mobile device.

To make this change permanent and load the driver as a module at boot time, place the appropriate line of the following in /boot/loader.conf:

if_urndis_load=YES if_cdce_load=YES if_ipheth_load=YES

Loading Bluetooth Support

Before attaching a Bluetooth device, determine which Bluetooth driver it uses. A broad variety of Bluetooth USB dongles are supported by ng_ubt(4). Broadcom BCM2033 based Bluetooth devices are supported by the ubtbcmfw(4) and ng_ubt(4) drivers. The 3Com Bluetooth PC Card 3CRWB60-A is supported by the ng_bt3c(4) driver. Serial and UART based Bluetooth devices are supported by sio(4), ng_h4(4), and hcseriald(8). For example, if the device uses the ng_ubt(4) driver:

If the Bluetooth device will be attached to the system during system startup, the system can be configured to load the module at boot time by adding the driver to /boot/loader.conf :

wi-fi, bluetooth, connect, share, internet

Once the driver is loaded, plug in the USB dongle. If the driver load was successful, output similar to the following should appear on the console and in /var/log/messages :

ubt0: vendor 0x0a12 product 0x0001, rev 1.10/5.25, addr 2 ubt0: Interface 0 endpoints: interrupt=0x81, bulk-in=0x82, bulk-out=0x2 ubt0: Interface 1 (alt.config 5) endpoints: isoc-in=0x83, isoc-out=0x3, wMaxPacketSize=49, nframes=6, buffer size=294

To start and stop Bluetooth, use the driver’s startup script.

# service bluetooth start ubt0

Finding Other Bluetooth Devices

FreeBSD uses hccontrol(8) to find and identify Bluetooth devices within RF proximity.

One of the most common tasks is discovery of Bluetooth devices within RF proximity. This operation is called inquiry. Inquiry and other HCI related operations are done using hccontrol(8). To display a list of devices that are in range use:

% hccontrol.n ubt0hci inquiry Inquiry result, num_responses=1 Inquiry result #0 BD_ADDR: 00:80:37:29:19:a4 Page Scan Rep. Mode: 0x1 Page Scan Period Mode: 00 Page Scan Mode: 00 Class: 52:02:04 Clock offset: 0x78ef Inquiry complete. Status: No error [00]

Note: only devices that are set to discoverable mode will be listed.

The BD_ADDR is the unique address of a Bluetooth device, similar to the MAC address of a network card. This address is needed for further communication with a device. To to obtain the human readable name that was assigned to the remote device:

% hccontrol.n ubt0hci remote_name_request 00:80:37:29:19:a4 BD_ADDR: 00:80:37:29:19:a4 Name: Pav’s T39

The Bluetooth system provides a point-to-point connection between two Bluetooth units, or a point-to-multipoint connection which is shared among several Bluetooth devices. The following example shows how to create a connection to a remote device:

% hccontrol.n ubt0hci create_connection BT_ADDR

create_connection accepts BT_ADDR as well as host aliases in /etc/bluetooth/hosts.

The following example shows how to obtain the list of active baseband connections for the local device:

% hccontrol.n ubt0hci read_connection_list Remote BD_ADDR Handle Type Mode Role Encrypt Pending Queue State 00:80:37:29:19:a4 41 ACL 0 MAST NONE 0 0 OPEN

Bluetooth Device Pairing

While a Bluetooth device can choose to require authentication, communication is normally not authenticated, so any Bluetooth device can talk to any other device. If the device requires authentication, the PIN code must be entered on both devices, the devices will then generate a link key. After that, the link key can be stored either in the devices or in a persistent storage. This procedure is called pairing.

The hcsecd(8) daemon is responsible for handling Bluetooth authentication requests. The default configuration file is /etc/bluetooth/hcsecd.conf. An example section for a cellular phone with the PIN code set to 1234 is shown below:

The only limitation on PIN codes is length. Some devices, such as Bluetooth headsets, may have a fixed PIN code built in. The.d switch forces hcsecd(8) to stay in the foreground, so it is easy to see what is happening. Set the remote device to receive pairing and initiate the Bluetooth connection to the remote device. The remote device should indicate that pairing was accepted and request the PIN code. Enter the same PIN code listed in hcsecd.conf. Now the computer and the remote device are paired.

The following line can be added to /etc/rc.conf to configure hcsecd(8) to start automatically on system start:

3980 Broadway Street STE #103-107 Boulder CO 80304

Can I Share Internet Via Bluetooth? (Solved)

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You can always share your internet connection via Bluetooth if you have a phone that supports it. However, Bluetooth tethering is much slower than USB or Wi-Fi tethering, making it unsuitable for speedy connections. On the positive side, it’s very energy efficient for both connecting devices.

While you’ve likely used Bluetooth to connect your earbuds, you’re probably unaware of the Bluetooth tethering feature. Most phones come with a nifty feature dubbed Bluetooth tethering, which lets you do just that. Bluetooth tethering is admittedly imperfect, but it works in certain situations.

Before attempting to share your internet with another device via Bluetooth, it’s important to understand how it works. This will help you comprehend the strengths and weaknesses of this connection method.

Historically, Android devices will let you share your internet connection in three ways. You can use the Wi-Fi hotspot, Bluetooth tethering, or USB tethering. All of these perform the same fundamental function but with different methods.

Bluetooth tethering is, unfortunately, the slowest method of the three. Unless there’s a specific reason you can’t use any of the alternatives, Bluetooth tethering is always frustrating.

The reason for the frustrating nature of Bluetooth nature is simple. Of all the connection protocols on your smartphone, Bluetooth appears to be the slowest. Consequently, Bluetooth is only used to send audio to certain devices and enable low power connections.

Therefore, the maximum speed of your Bluetooth connection at a given time will be your internet speed cap on Bluetooth tethering. So if you’re trying to download multi-gigabit files, you may be in for a very long wait.

However, Bluetooth tethering is included in your phone for a reason. There are specific circumstances when using Bluetooth tethering is a no-brainer. The following section will outline some scenarios where Bluetooth tethering comes in handy.

When To Use Bluetooth Tethering

Looking at most of the disadvantages of sharing the internet via Bluetooth, you may want to ask: why? It seems too slow for anything productive, and its range is nothing to write home about.

However, there are many instances when Bluetooth tethering is the best option. While it’s improbable that you’ll ever come across one, you should know they exist.

Here are some of the best times when Bluetooth tethering is the best way to share the internet:

If your phone can’t share a Wi-Fi connection

Almost all Android and iOS smartphones can share cellular data via Wi-Fi hotspot. However, this rule doesn’t apply when the phone itself is connected to a Wi-Fi network. In that case, you may have to default to USB or Bluetooth tethering.

Since all modern smartphones have only one USB slot, you can’t use USB tethering while charging your device. That leaves Bluetooth tethering as the only feasible option when the only available USB port is in use.

This also applies if your phone doesn’t have the Wi-Fi hotspot functionality at all. Since the availability of the hotspot feature depends on your carrier, you may have to default to Bluetooth if it’s unavailable.

How to share WiFi through Bluetooth

When you value battery life over internet speed

One of the major advantages of Bluetooth over Wi-Fi is the low battery consumption. This is because Bluetooth has been optimized to use minimal energy while staying connected over the long term. It also explains why devices like earbuds connect to phones using Bluetooth.

If you’re looking to stream audio on the internet while saving your laptop’s battery, Bluetooth tethering is the best. While Bluetooth isn’t the fastest out there, it’s just enough to stream audio reliably.

Can I Share Internet Via Bluetooth?

If you’ve always used hotspot tethering, you may be skeptical about the possibility of sharing the internet through Bluetooth. However, unlike hotspot tethering, Bluetooth tethering isn’t dependent on your phone’s carrier; it exists on every recent Android or iOS smartphone.

The possibility to share the internet via Bluetooth doesn’t make it as feasible as USB and hotspot tethering. For one, it’s an incredibly slow way to share your internet connection across devices. If you use the newest Bluetooth technology, you should look at a speed cap of 2Mbit/s.

Also, the range of a Bluetooth internet connection is unusable compared to Wi-Fi. Your Wi-Fi router can reach up to 10 times the radius you can reach with a regular Bluetooth connection. These factors combine to make Bluetooth the worst and the least popular way to share the internet.

However, Bluetooth is an efficient way to share the internet between two devices. While it doesn’t save as much battery as a USB connection, it’s not as power-hungry as using a hotspot. Furthermore, since it’s a wireless connection protocol, sharing the internet via Bluetooth will keep your USB port free.

How Do I Connect To Internet Using Bluetooth?

Connecting to the internet via Bluetooth is pretty easy once you get the hang of it. If you already connect to the internet using a hotspot, the steps for initiating a Bluetooth connection are also similar. However, this process differs across various devices and operating systems.

If you have used an Android phone anywhere for the past few years, you should have Bluetooth tethering functionality. All iPhone 4 also have this feature baked in, making it easy to connect using Bluetooth.

How To Connect To Internet Using Bluetooth On Android

Androids had had the Bluetooth tethering feature long before it came to iPhones. For this reason, it’s slightly easier to connect to the internet using Bluetooth on Android compared to iPhones. However, if you don’t know how to do it, it will still be an uphill task.

Here are the steps required to connect to the internet using Bluetooth on Android phones:

Ensure your device is connected to the internet

Before setting up your device for Bluetooth tethering, you must have a working internet connection. The internet connection is what you share with the connecting device to connect to the internet. Most modern devices will let you share both cellular and Wi-Fi internet connections.

If your device doesn’t let you share a Wi-Fi connection, you can enable your cellular data. In addition, you’ll almost certainly be able to enable Bluetooth tethering using the cellular connection.

Enable Bluetooth and Bluetooth Tethering

After connecting the device to the internet, you’ll need to enable Bluetooth tethering on your phone. However, the Bluetooth tethering option will be unavailable until you enable the Bluetooth feature. You can enable Bluetooth from the notifications panel on your device.

After enabling Bluetooth, you can navigate to the Wireless and Networks option in your settings. From the options in this menu, select “Hotspot and tethering.” The toggle to enable Bluetooth tethering should be among the options on the Hotspot and tethering menu.

Pair the connecting device

After enabling Bluetooth tethering on the connecting device, you can enable Bluetooth on the connecting device to start the connection. If it’s an Android smartphone, you may need to enable Internet access in the settings app to share the connection.

The steps for completing the connection on computers are a bit more complicated. Also, these steps differ across the two major operating systems for PCs, but I’ll be providing a guide for both.

For Windows

If you’re trying to connect your phone to your Windows PC using Bluetooth, you’ll need an extra setting. First, you’ll navigate to the Settings app on your PC, select Devices and printer, and right-click on your phone’s icon. Then, choose to connect using Access point from the connection options, and you’re good to go.

For Mac

For computers running the macOS operating system, these steps will differ slightly. First, you’ll need to pair your Android phone to your Mac via Bluetooth from the System Preferences app.

After pairing your device, navigate to “Network” in System Preferences and select Bluetooth. Click on the Bluetooth PAN option that appears and select your phone to connect it. Your Mac should instantly connect to the internet via Bluetooth tethering.

wi-fi, bluetooth, connect, share, internet

Does Bluetooth work without Wi-Fi? Everything You Need to Know About Both

Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are both methods of wireless connectivity. Both can connect two devices for sharing data, but there are some slight differences between the two. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, although similar, are independent technologies. This means neither Bluetooth nor Wi-Fi needs one or the other two work. Both are capable of working independently. So does Bluetooth work without Wi-Fi? Yes, absolutely.

Bluetooth was invented way before Wi-Fi, in around 1989, while Wi-Fi (the modern standardized one) came in 1997. Both the technologies work on the radio signals and both connect devices. A confusion that often arises; does Bluetooth work by using Wi-Fi? The answer to that is no. Bluetooth has its frequency to work and it does not need Wi-Fi in any form. Let us elaborate and see what purpose Bluetooth and Wi-Fi have.

How Bluetooth works and it uses

Bluetooth uses specific radio frequencies to transmit data to other, nearby devices. This includes sending pictures, songs (remember the early 2000s and 2010s?), videos, etc. This was when phones were getting smarter but not that Smart and when the only use of Bluetooth was to send a song or a picture. It uses low-powered radio signals to operate. This ensures low power consumption.

Today Bluetooth is majorly used for connecting wireless earphones, speakers, mouse, or keyboards. The internet is fast enough and the phones are Smart enough to transfer photos and videos and stream songs. Bluetooth is used to connect devices with each other. The advantage of Bluetooth to connect devices with each other is that they can stay connected for longer periods of time with minimal battery usage.

What’s the difference between Bluetooth and Wi-Fi?

The difference between Bluetooth and Wi-Fi is the range and strength. Bluetooth is a great way of transmitting data or connecting devices that are in close range. The effective range for Bluetooth connection was about 30 feet or 9 meters. The speed of data transfer was also abysmally low. But now things have changed.

Bluetooth 5.0 is the latest version of Bluetooth that comes with high-end smartphones and wireless devices. Bluetooth 5.0 offers a range of 800 feet or 240 meters and the data transfer speed is great (around 2 Mbps, which sounds slow but for Bluetooth, it is more than enough).

Wi-Fi is another chapter of the same book. Wi-Fi is used to connect multiple devices to one network and allows better speeds. Wi-Fi is mostly used for data connections. Here’s the shocker: The latest standard for Wi-Fi, IEEE 802.11ac has a range of around 230 feet or around 70 meters. This is way lower than Bluetooth. The difference comes in the data transfer speed. Where Bluetooth can transfer only around 2Mbps, Wi-Fi can transfer almost 1.33Gbps of data. That’s around 5,320 times more data than Bluetooth.

What means what

Bluetooth is used for connecting your phone to other devices like wireless speakers or earphones. This does not use any packet data or the internet. This means that your mobile network or internet connection is NOT used while using Bluetooth. Bluetooth also uses very low power so it is not a battery-eater. Bluetooth, and not Wi-Fi, is also used to connect your phone to your car for playing music, etc.

Wi-Fi is mostly used for connecting to the internet when there is a router nearby. This is the primary use of Wi-Fi, but it is not limited to using the internet. Wi-Fi can send files very fast, make your phone as an internet router (hotspot), sharing screens, streaming audio and video, etc.

Do keep in mind that if you notice that your Wi-Fi is turned on and connected to an unknown network, disconnect from it immediately. Your phone can be accessed to some degree via malicious Wi-Fi connections.

Although Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are both very safe, any unknown connections should be avoided. Some older Nokia phones were so vulnerable that if a phone was paired (connected via Bluetooth) with other phone’s Bluetooth, the other phone could look at Nokia’s contacts, photos, and videos, without the owner knowing. But these days Bluetooth has gotten very safe.

This was all about the difference between Wi-Fi and Bluetooth and does Bluetooth work without Wi-Fi. Bluetooth does work without Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi works without Bluetooth. They both work on similar technology and are used for connectivity, but different purposes. You can read more articles related to this topic to further enhance your knowledge about network and connectivity:

Wi-Fi 6 and Bluetooth 5

It sounds self-evident: The biggest advantage of wireless communication is the freedom from cables, which makes mobility with the terminal device possible. Smartphones, tablets and laptops depend on mobile internet.

The further development of wireless communication is necessary. Because wherever there are advantages, there are also disadvantages. One is the transmission speed, which is generally lower than with cable. This article is concerned with clarifying terms and specifications of the technologies, what they can or cannot (yet) do, history of development and where further development is taking place.


Even if Wi-Fi and WLAN are used synonymously, the terms must be technically differentiated. This is because Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity and is a certified form of WLAN according to the IEEE 802.11 standard. WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), on the other hand, refers to a wireless, local network. This means that every Wi-Fi is part of the WLAN. but not the other way round.

WLAN is therefore a generic term, so to speak. As a wireless network, a WLAN is often the basis for a home network in addition to a wired network (LAN). In particular, mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or laptops can be integrated into the home network and connected to the Internet via such a wireless LAN (WLAN).

Most routers used in home networks already have a corresponding radio module integrated to provide a WLAN. Alternatively, a WLAN access point can be used to create a WLAN and expand the home network. Special WLAN repeaters are used to amplify the WLAN signal.

By a WLAN network all devices, such as mobile phones without Ethernet cable connection, can be easily connected with the internet. The WLAN transfer speed can vary. If, for example, several neighbours share a channel or radio cell, the data transfer rate is lower. In this case, the use of Ethernet cables may be better in comparison to a router. Radio interference can also disturb the WLAN or even force it to crash, but this is rarely the case.

With Wi-Fi 6, the latest WLAN standard 802.11ax is now coming onto the market. As the successor to the WLAN 802.11ac announced in 2013, Wi-Fi 6 provides higher data rates and offers more stability in the home network. Wi-Fi 6 achieves this with the help of the OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) procedure, which is also used in the 4G / LTE mobile radio range. The basis of OFDMA is the bidirectional signal communication. The efficiency is constantly optimised by the transmitter permanently measuring individual user channels.

Wi-Fi 6 uses QAM-1024 instead of QAM-256, so 1024 instead of 256 transmission codes. This increases the data throughput from 8 bits to 10 bits. In addition to faster and better data transmission, Wi-Fi 6 can also offer a wider bandwidth. Because instead of the previous maximum of 64, there are now up to 256 subchannels. As a result, Wi-Fi 6 can divide its channels more flexibly and offers simultaneous use of several frequency bands in the two frequency ranges 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. In addition, Wi-Fi 6 offers other detailed improvements, such as more efficient avoidance of interference between WLAN devices and new energy-saving modes.

In addition to OFDMA, Wi-Fi 6 offers another practical innovation, MU-MIMO, which deals with the problem of interference. MU-MIMO stands for Multi User Multiple Input Multiple Output and allows the router to handle simultaneous communication between multiple devices. By using multiple frequency bands, the time a device has to wait for a signal is reduced. If you imagine a 4-person family, up to 10 WLAN devices can be connected quickly. MU-MIMO improves the network accordingly The first Wi-Fi 6 routers are already on the market (status in the middle of 2020), and there is also movement in the client area. Here is an example of a Delock product:

Item 89049: PCI Express Card Dual Band Wi-Fi 6 WLAN ax/ac/a/b/g/n 2400 Mbps Bluetooth 5.1

Connectors external: 2 x RP-SMA jack internal: 1 x PCI Express x1, V3.0 1 x 4 pin USB (Bluetooth) Chip set: Intel AX200 Antenna type: external omnidirectional detachable antenna Antenna gain: 2 dBi Supports MU-MIMO

This PCI Express card by Delock is installed in a PC and can provide a WLAN and Bluetooth connection. The Wi-Fi standard 802.11ax is supported for higher data rates. At the same time, interference due to overlapping WLAN frequencies is reduced. Compatibility with previous standards such as 802.11ac/a/n/b/g is ensured.

The WLAN card can be connected to an access point (hot spot) or WLAN router in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Band. An adhoc connection to a second computer is also possible. Thanks to Bluetooth 5.1, it requires less power and has a high data transfer rate of up to 2400 Mbps @ 2×2 802.11ax. The card can be easily coupled with terminal devices.

Bluetooth is a radio standard that can be used over short distances to transfer data, music, videos or pictures from one device to another. At the end of the 90s, Bluetooth was developed by SIG, the Bluetooth Special Interest Group. Since its foundation in 1998 by the companies Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba, more than 34,000 companies has joined the group with the aim to steadily improve and spread the radio standard.

As with Wi-Fi, the engineers who developed the Bluetooth connection have put a lot of effort into its development over the last few months. Actually adopted in December 2016, Bluetooth 5 has only been available in smartphones and tablets since late 2019 / early 2020. Meanwhile almost all newer models are equipped with the current standard of the Special Interest Group (SIG).

Bluetooth uses the 2.4 GHz frequency range to establish a radio connection with which data can be transferred. For example, music can be played from a smartphone via a Bluetooth speaker box. Technically speaking, this means that both Bluetooth devices are activated and a Wireless Personal Area Network (Piconet) has been created to establish a point-to-point connection.

Up to 8 Bluetooth devices can simultaneously establish a point-to-multipoint connection. One device, the so-called master, controls the communication of the remaining participants, the slaves. Bluetooth devices that are not actively involved in the exchange are kept in standby mode and can be activated as required. A Bluetooth device can be registered in several piconets, but can only act as a master in one of them.

To connect two devices via Bluetooth, they must first synchronise. To do this, the Bluetooth must be switched on in the respective device and a security code must be exchanged between the devices to complete the pairing process. When not in use, it is recommended that you disable Bluetooth.

The first versions Bluetooth 1.0a and 1.0b were still very susceptible to errors. Only two years after their release they were replaced by the successor Bluetooth 1.1. With the introduction of the 1.2 standard, not only the number of connection failures decreased, but also the data transfer rate increased. From 723 Kbit/s, the rate now rose to 1 Mbit/s.

In 2004 the next version of the radio connection was released. Bluetooth 2.0. With a faster data transfer rate of up to 2.1 Mbit/s, EDR was also added. EDR stands for Enhanced Data Rate and ensures an even faster data rate, as well as saving battery capacity. Bluetooth 2.1 was able to establish connections more easily and quickly thanks to SSP (Secure Simple Paring) and had a higher transmission security.

In 2009 a new channel was added to the Bluetooth connection. Bluetooth 4.0 followed just one year later, although the FOCUS here was not on operating range, but on power supply. Thanks to Low Energy Technology, the battery was saved, but the data transfer rate was reduced again. Bluetooth 4.0 was ideal for use with the first door locks, fitness trackers and Smart watches.

As the number of Bluetooth devices increased, so did the requirements. Bluetooth 4.1 appeared in 2013 and promised the possibility of operating any device as host or client, without the necessity of using a smartphone. The successor Bluetooth 4.2 offered a faster data rate and optimised data security with ECC in addition to all the services described above.

With the latest Bluetooth 5 standard, the operating range has been increased enormously, to four times that of the previous version. And this despite the fact that the connections still require very little energy (Low Energy = LE).

Without obstacles between transmitter and receiver, now connections up to 200 meters are possible. In flats with a lot of walls, mostly made of concrete, it is about rather 40 to 60 meters. And also the speed was optimised. For this, Bluetooth 5 increases the maximal transmitting capability to 100 mW, parallel to the WLAN standard IEEE 802.11n.

Smart enough for Smart Home

Thanks to various optimizations, Bluetooth 5 is no longer only suitable for the use of Smart watches, headsets or fitness trackers, but can also be used for smoke detectors, thermostats, home automation or generally for Smart home components. And also Beacon users have benefits of the innovations. Because data packs now can be 255 byte instead of 31 byte so far. So, for example, complete URLs can be transferred at once. And also the transmission of broadcasts in the frequently used 2.4 GHz Band is made easier, because now all 37 channels are available instead of only 3, like up to now.

Item 61889: USB 2.0 Bluetooth Adapter 4.0 dual mode

Connector: 1 x USB 2.0 Type-A male Chipset: Broadcom Class 2, operating range 10 meter Frequency range: 2.4. 2.4835 GHz ISM Band Dimensions (LxWxH): ca. 19.5 x 16.0 x 8.1 mm

The ultra-mini USB 2.0 Bluetooth adapter enables a wireless communication or data transfer e.g. between two PCs or a PC and a mobile phone. This Bluetooth adapter can remain plugged in the laptop since it stands out only 7 mm from the USB port.

The adapter works as dual mode dongle and does not require high power due to the Bluetooth 4.0 standard. Furthermore it can easily be connected with end devices. The data transfer rate is up to 3 Mbps.

Item 61000: Bluetooth 4.2 and Dual Band WLAN ac/a/b/g/n 433 Mbps USB Adapter

Connector: 1 x USB 2.0 Type-A male Chipset: Realtek RTL8821CU Class 2, operating range 10 meter Frequency range: 2.4. 2.4835 GHz ISM Band Dimensions (LxWxH): ca. 22,0 x 14,0 x 7,5 mm

The 2 in 1 USB 2.0 Bluetooth and WLAN adapter ensures wireless communication and data transfer e.g. between two PCs or between a PC and a mobile phone. Thanks to the Bluetooth 4.2 standard, it requires less power at a data transfer rate of up to 3 Mbps.

Dualband WLAN 433 Mbps: The WLAN stick can be connected to an access point or WLAN router in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Band. Furthermore, an ad hoc connection to a second computer is possible.

Item 61002: USB 2.0 Bluetooth 4.0 Adapter 2 in 1 USB Type-C™ or Type-A

Connector: 1 x USB 2.0 Type-A male 1 x USB 2.0 Type-C™ male Chipset: Cambridge Silicon Radio Class 2, operating range 10 meter Frequency range: 2.4. 2.4835 GHz ISM Band Dimensions (LxWxH): ca. 34 x 20 x 12 mm

The USB 2.0 Bluetooth adapter enables wireless communication and data transfer e.g. between two PCs or a PC and a mobile phone or network. It supports the Bluetooth profile A2DP and achieves a data transfer rate of up to 3 Mbps.

2 in 1: Thanks to the possibility of switching between the two ports USB Type-A and USB Type-C™, this Bluetooth adapter is the ideal companion. Thanks to its small dimensions and the eyelet, it can be attached to a key ring, for example.

Item 61003: USB 2.0 Bluetooth 4.0 Adapter USB Type-C™

Connector: 1 x USB Type-C™ male Chipset: Cambridge Silicon Radio Class 2, operating range 10 meter Frequency range: 2.4. 2.4835 GHz ISM Band Dimensions (LxWxH): ca. 29.0 x 14.5 x 6.0 mm

The USB 2.0 Bluetooth adapter ensures wireless communication and data transfer e.g. between two PCs or between a PC and a mobile phone. The adapter can remain connected to the notebook at all times.

The adapter is very compact and can be attached to a lanyard with its eyelet. During operation, the LED display lights up green. The data transfer rate is up to 3 Mbps.

Item 61004: USB 2.0 Bluetooth 4.0 Adapter USB Type-A

Connector: 1 x USB 2.0 Type-A male Chipset: Cambridge Silicon Radio Class 2, operating range 10 meter Frequency range: 2.4. 2.4835 GHz ISM Band Dimensions (LxWxH): ca. 22.3 x 15.0 x 7.4 mm

The USB 2.0 Bluetooth adapter enables wireless communication and data transfer e.g. between two PCs or between a PC and a mobile phone. The adapter can remain connected to the notebook, as it protrudes only 7 mm from the USB port.

Supports A2DP : A2DP stands for Advanced Audio Distribution Profile and enables the transmission of both data and audio signals. This makes the stick an ideal addition, for example, to connect the notebook with Bluetooth-capable headphones.