Principles of Processing Information Using a Computer
Information. a very comprehensive concept in terms of content and form of presentation, which is found in all areas of human activity. Having the initial meaning as some information, the totality of any knowledge or data, it has passed through computer science (a scientific discipline that studies the properties and structure of information) and cybernetics (the science of managing systems) into the category of technological disciplines that have everyday use.
Starting with individual sounds, rock carvings, information through language has turned into book depositories and libraries of knowledge and experience of mankind. With the invention of technical means of communication. mail, telegraph, telephone, wave communication through artificial satellites of the earth entered our everyday life by streams of messages from all corners of world civilization, connected all people with radio and telecommunications. The technological schemes for transmitting information are identical: collecting messages and correspondence (primary documents), picking packages and programs out of them, sending them to the receiving departments that distribute information to addresses.
If the information is valuable or secret, then special measures are taken to protect and store.
This technology is implemented by appropriate technical means. The latter are constantly changing in the direction of improving the quality of service, intensifying and reducing the cost of sending correspondence.
To define a concept“information technology” it is necessary to describe the process of processing information using a personal computer (PC), its individual operations, to assess the role and importance of various devices in the implementation of each operation and the process as a whole.
Several definitions of information technology are currently known. One class is determined by a combination of software and hardware related to various technological chains. Another class is determined on the basis of the relationship of a person with information and computing resources aimed at influencing society, the environment, etc. Thus, a person’s desire to embrace any processes associated with the use of information and his influence on the world are displayed.
The latest modern information technology is based on network technology, which is based on the technology of computer networks, data networks, PC networks of various types, terminal networks, the principles of distributed processing and storage of data.
From the point of view of technology of the industrial industry, the new information technology combines:
ü communication technology as part of local, regional, global PC networks;
ü technology for the development of management decisions in real time on the basis of expert systems, databases and knowledge bases.
Based on the above relations, the set of which gives the desired concept,latest information technology can be defined as a set of fundamentally new tools and methods for storing, transmitting and processing data that are combined into technological systems and provide targeted creation and display of an information product at the lowest cost in accordance with the conditions of existence of information technology.
Given the significant diversity of the new information technology, it should be noted the need for analysis and synthesis of its structures, as well as the management structures of information processing systems. Of fundamental interest is the management system of the so-called industrial information technology, which has the following characteristic features:
increasing the efficiency of information users through specialization, unification and typification of information technology components, the introduction of new organizational and economic forms in information production;
ensuring manufacturability, stability, flexibility, reliability of information technology components;
creating conditions for the rapid and effective development of industrial and non-industrial information technologies for solving specific problems.
On a global scale, industrial information technology is presented as a single information support for the technological integrity of the national economy. The tasks of designing and generating information technology can be assigned to the class of system tasks, the solution of which is based on the methods and principles of the system approach. Using this approach, it was possible to single out the following levels of management of industrial information technology: technological management associated with the implementation of interconnected information and computing work:
organizational management aimed at the development of targeted impacts on the control object (technology), the content of which is the processes of accumulation, processing of information and the development of management decisions carried out by users in an interactive mode;
economic management associated with reducing the cost of information and computing services.
To implement the functions of the selected management levels, an information industrial technology management system is used. The goals of creating such a system can be combined into the following three groups:
1) providing a given composition of information process control elements;
2) providing a given structure of relations between elements of a control system or a sequence of control actions;
3) providing support for characteristics that reflect the properties of the system. Fulfillment of the above goals leads to the need to use a hierarchical management system, at the lower level of which there are elements of technological management, and at the highest. nodes of organizational, organizational-technological, administrative management.
For the specific use of the achievements of modern information technologies, it is necessary to plan the process of creating information systems, which will improve the efficiency of the technology management system and achieve its goals. The experience in implementing such systems made it possible to single out the following hierarchy levels of the industrial information technology management system:
the level of control of the local PC and its devices for solving operational planning and dispatch control tasks in the range of control functions performed;
the level of management of the local PC network (subnet of the regional PC network) for the operational management of production and economic complexes, technological processes;
level of management of regional and global PC networks for solving management tasks at all levels.
Given the dynamics of the development of software and hardware, it is necessary to constantly improve the instrumental and technological tools of industrial technology control systems to develop managerial decisions. Therefore, the further development of technology management systems should be associated with the solution of the following tasks:
when developing organizational, technical and software tools for an information technology management system, it is necessary to consider them as complex technological systems, including technical, software and organizational support;
adaptation of control system levels to solving specific applications and changing the structure and capabilities of software and hardware that work offline and modes of collective use of information and computing resources.
The following are the main structural elements of new information technologies: information and computer networks, telecommunications, e-mail, newsgroups, workstations, and automated data banks.