Information processing using a computer

Topic 7. Computer Information Processing

Processing is one of the main operations performed on information, and the main means of increasing its volume and diversity. For information processing by means of technical facilities it is presented in a formalized form. in the form of data structures (“information objects”), which represent some abstraction of a real world fragment. Abstraction (from lat. Abstraction implies singling out the properties and relations that are the most important from the point of view of the processing task. So, for example, the information about a student, which is necessary to record his progress, can be represented by a set of such identifying data as last name, first name, patronymic, number of the study group. At the same time, the characteristics which are not essential for the given task, such as height, weight, hair color, etc.п., will not be taken into account.

Information processing. getting some “information objects” (data structures) from others by executing some algorithms.

Executor of an algorithm. an abstract or real (technical, biological or biotechnical) system capable of performing the actions prescribed by the algorithm. Different types of computing machines are used for mechanization and automation of information processing and calculations performed according to a given algorithm: mechanical, electric, electronic (ECM), hydraulic, pneumatic, optical and combined.

In modern computer science the main executor of algorithms is a computer, also called a computer (from Eng. computer).

Computer is an electronic device, designed to automate the process of algorithmic processing of information and computation.

digital computer machines (DCC). which process the information presented in digital form;

Analog Computer Machines (ACM). which process the information represented by-

the continuously varying values of some physical quantity (electric voltage, current, etc.) are presented in the form of an isomorphic model.д.);

hybrid computer (HMC). containing both analog and digital computing devices.

The functioning of ABM is based on the principle of modeling. Thus, when using

as a model of some electronic circuit problem, for each variable of the problem a certain variable of the electronic circuit is assigned. At the same time, the basis for constructing such a model is isomoism (similarity) of the problem under study and the corresponding electronic model. According to their computing capabilities ABM are most suitable for solving mathematical problems containing differential equations which don’t require complex logic. Unlike Computers, the accuracy of which is determined by their digit capacity, the accuracy of calculations on AVM is limited and is characterized by the quality of manufacturing of element base and basic units. At the same time for the whole class of problems the speed of problem solution on the ABM may be significantly higher than on the CPU. It is explained by the parallel principle of problem solution on ABM which-

where the result of the solution is obtained instantly and simultaneously in all points of the model. This feature determines the use of ABM in closed-loop control systems and for solving problems in real time. Hybrid machines, containing both analog and digital computing devices, combine the advantages of ABM and CPM. In such machines, digital devices usually serve for control and logical operations, and analog devices for solving differential equations.

Since nowadays the vast majority of computers are digital, we will use the word “computer” or “computer” in the meaning of “digital computer”. To process analog information on such a computer it is firstly converted into a digital form.

A modern computer (computer) as a real data processing system has a number of peculiarities-

The computer has a finite set of commands underlying the implementation and execution of each algorithm;

Computer works discretely (contact by contact) under control of the program stored in memory;

Computers have a wide set of commands, which allows them to efficiently present a variety of algorithms to solve problems;

every computer is potentially universal. Potentiality is explained by the fact that no computer can be considered universal in the sense of computability of an arbitrary, partially recursive function, t.е. There is a class of unsolvable problems for it provided its resources (first of all memory) remain unchanged.

The base of modern computers is formed by hardware, i.e. a set of electronic and electromechanical elements and devices and the principle of computer information processing consists in the execution of a program (Software) which is a formalized description of a processing algorithm in the form of a sequence of commands that control the processing process.

A command is a binary code that defines the action of a computer system to perform an operation.

Operation is a complex of technological operations performed on information by one of the program commands.

Basic operations in information processing on computer are arithmetic and logical. Arithmetic operations include all kinds of mathematical operations on integers, fractions and floating point numbers according to the program. Logic operations provide actions over logical values with getting logical result.

In computer systems a sequence of actions composing the task of information processing is called a process.

So, processing some text with an editor program is a process, and editing other text with the same program is a different process, even if the same copy of the program is used. A process is defined by a corresponding pro-

A set of data which can be read, written and used during the process implementation, as well as a process descriptor describing the current state of any computer resource allocated to the process.

A process descriptor is a set of information determining the state of computer resources allocated to a process.

Each user session with a computing system, such as data input/output to a computer, is also a process. In general case there can exist any number of processes in a computer system simultaneously, that’s why they can compete for possession of one or another resource, first of all for the time of the processor. the main computing device of the computer. It stipulates the necessity of organization of process control and planning. In modern computers to perform these tasks are operating systems (OS), which include a set of programs for process control, resource allocation, organization of input-output and interaction with the user.

How PC works: Information Processing

A computer for automating information processing. It is designed appropriately, so that it has every opportunity to succeed in its purpose.

In order to process information in a computer, the following basic operations must be done with it:

This operation is necessary so that the computer has something to process. Without the ability to input information into the computer, it becomes like a thing in itself.

Obviously, if one makes it possible to input information into a computer, then one must also be able to store this information in it and then use it in processing.

Here we must understand that in order to process the entered information we need certain processing algorithms, otherwise no information processing is out of the question. The computer should be provided with such algorithms and should be able to apply them to the input data in order to “correctly” convert them into the output data.

Just as with the storage of input information, the computer must store the results of its work, the results of processing the input data so that they can be used later.

This operation allows to output the results of information processing in the form readable for PC users. It is clear that this operation makes it possible to take advantage of the results of information processing on the computer, otherwise these results of processing would remain inside the computer, making it absolutely meaningless to receive them.

The most important skill of the computer is the information processing, because its beauty lies in the fact that it can transform information. The whole computer structure is determined by the requirement to process information in the shortest possible time and in the fastest possible way.

Information processing on a computer can be understood as any action that transforms information from one state to another. Accordingly, the computer has a special device called. which is designed exclusively for extremely fast data processing, with speeds reaching up to billions of operations per second.

The data required for processing the processor receives (takes) from the device intended for temporary storage of both input and output data. There is also a place in the main memory for storing intermediate data generated in the process of information processing. Thus, the processor both receives data from the main memory and writes the processed data to the main memory.

Finally, for input and output of data the computer is connected to. which allows the input of the information to be processed and the output of this processing.

External hard drive, external DVD device, flash drive, keyboard, mouse

The processor and RAM run at the same high speed. As mentioned above, the data processing speed can be many millions and billions of operations per second. No external input and output device can operate at such speeds.

Therefore, special input-output device controllers are provided in the computer for their connection. Their task is to match the high speed of the processor and RAM with relatively slow speed of input and output.

These controllers are subdivided into specialized, to which only special devices can be connected, and universal. An example of a specialized controller device is, for example, a graphics card which is designed to connect a monitor to a computer.

Universal means useful for many purposes and performing a variety of functions. Let’s remember A computer is a versatile machine for working with information in a wide variety of human activities. !! Information processing Information transfer Information storage

The science of computer science is concerned with studying all possible ways of transmitting, storing and processing information. Let’s remember Data are all kinds of information presented in a form suitable for computer processing. A computer processes data according to a preset program. !!

PC hardware Basic devices System unit Monitor Keyboard Additional devices Input devices Output devices Storage devices Transmission devices The minimum necessary set for the user Extends the capabilities of the user PC devices A computer (calculator) is an electronic machine for working with information

The main thing in a computer is a system unit, which includes a processor, RAM, a hard drive, a power supply and other components. How a computer works ProcessorProcessor Long-term memory Memory (hard drive) Long-term memory (hard drive) RAM Power supply Other components

information, processing, using, computer

HDROM (hard drive) GMD CD and DVD-ROM CD and DVD-RW flash memory Removable disks Memory cards Memory devices and processing INERRAND ROM RAM (RAM). RAM) Permanent memory (ROM. ROM) cache memory processing processor Memory consists of cells of equal size (1 byte = 8 bits). Each memory location has a unique address.

What is information processing on a computer

A computer’s most important skill is information processing. The beauty of a computer is that it can convert information. The entire structure of the computer is driven by the requirement to process information in the shortest possible time, in the fastest possible way.

Information processing on a computer can be understood as any action that converts information from one state to another.

Accordingly, the computer has a special device called a processor, which is designed exclusively for extremely fast data processing, with speeds up to billions of operations per second.

The data required for processing the processor gets (takes) from the RAM.

RAM is a device which is intended for the TEMPORARY storage of both input and output data.

There is also a place in the RAM for storing intermediate data generated during information processing. Thus, the processor both retrieves data from RAM and writes the processed data into that memory. The information is stored there temporarily, as long as it is being processed.

Read more:  How to Connect Jbl Headphones to a Computer

Finally, to input and output data, external input/output devices are connected to the computer, which allow you to ENTER the information to be processed, and to OUTPUT the results of this processing.

External hard drive, external DVD device, flash drive, keyboard, mouse

The processor and RAM operate at the same high speed. As it was mentioned above, information processing speed can be many millions and billions operations per second. No external input or output device can operate at these speeds.

Therefore, to connect them, the computer provides special I/O device controllers. Their task is to match the high speeds of the processor and RAM with the relatively slow speed of input and output.

These controllers are divided into specialized, to which only special devices can be connected, and universal. An example of a specialized controller device is a video card, for example, which is designed to connect a monitor.

Controllers can be universal, and in this case they are so called input-output ports, Various devices (keyboards, mouse, printers, scanners, etc) can be connected to the input-output ports.п.).

Computer information processing system

Electronic computer (ECM). universal device for input, output, accumulation, processing and transfer of information for solution of computing and information tasks. The term “computer” is used in the same sense as the term “computer.

Computer contains processing and peripheral devices, interaction and work under the control of programs.

Computer is an electronic machine because it consists of electronic circuits, a computing machine. because it processes information in digital form, performing calculations, numerical arithmetic and logical operations without human intervention. The digital form of any data representation provides the computer with such feature as universality, suitability for solving various tasks.

Computer receives information in the form of digital data and works with it on the basis of program, that is a sequence of data processing commands. A program can be unchangeable (embedded in a computer using logic circuitry) or replaceable (installed on a computer, downloadable). Modern computers have both types of programs. The result of the computer must be stored or transmitted to an output device.

The architecture of a computer system refers to the composition of the functional main blocks, the way they are connected, and the principles of information exchange. When describing the architecture the specific element base is often omitted and devices are considered in general terms.

The first formally described architecture was the von Neumann architecture, which assumed the following devices:

A central arithmetic logic device (ALU);

Memory device (DRAM) or RAM;

The architecture of a modern computer based on an Intel component base includes the following types of devices:

Operating memory device (RAM);

Permanent Storage Device (ROM);

Internal devices, backbone and local buses form the system (motherboard).

Clock generator. a device that continuously generates pulses, coordinating the operation of various devices in time (synchronization pulses).

Processor. is the main element of a computer and provides processing of any type of information as well as control of all other devices.

Coprocessor or co-processor (SP). an auxiliary processor specialized in operations of some type, such as arithmetic or graphics. May be absent, then it must be either built into the processor or emulated by software (emulated).

Operating memory (RAM). a device that stores information only when it is powered on. When power is turned off, information is lost and cannot be restored.

Permanent memory. a device which stores information regardless of the presence of power.

Cache memory. special fast memory dedicated to slow devices to speed up the information transfer process. The first Caches worked with hard disks. Some data from the most frequently accessed user discs is placed in the Cache memory, and subsequently the user does not work with the disc, but the Cache memory. Only when the work with the specified data is finished the information from the cache memory is written to the disk. Cache memory is either a standalone device or built into the processor.

CMOS memory. special low-power memory that stores information about the parameters of all the computer’s main devices. This memory is powered by a special battery located on the motherboard. Loss of data from the memory paralyzes the computer.

Architecture. the structure of a computer system and the relationship of components, hardware and/or software described schematically or with detailed parameters.

The term “architecture” is broader than structure because it applies to a system of systems, a structure of structures, and for a network of computers. Architecture can be a recommendation for a computer model, an individual device (processor architecture), or an operating system. Each subsystem has a different architecture, so the term “architecture” depends on the context. For example, the processor itself is a complex system with an architecture.

Devices within a computer system must be compatible.

Compatibility. the ability of different objects to interact. Sources and receivers of information, completing devices of hardware should possess compatibility for performance of operations. VCR and television set, telephone and radio elements should be compatible. Quality opposite to compatibility. incompatibility, conflicts in information processing.

In a computer system, data processing and exchange is carried out under the condition of compatibility of devices and programs from different manufacturers (send to the monitor, printer; receive from the keyboard, mouse, modem; work with the disk).

Intease. in a broad sense, the boundary between interacting objects defined by the standards. Inteis defines parameters, procedures and characteristics of interaction between computer system objects having different functions. The electrical parameters of the devices, the program commands must be coordinated in order to exchange information correctly, not to conflict, sometimes an intermediate device or an interface program is used for this.

Hardware intelligence is the interface, the compatibility of computer devices through the use of adapters. For example, a video adapter (a monitor control device) converts digital data into analog signals, a varying voltage that controls the color of the screen dots.

Hardware-software intelligence. compatibility of programs with computer devices by means of an operating system. Facilitates interaction with the user.

Standards and parameters for specifications, device interfaces and software have become publicly available (not manufacturing technology), the computer system has become “open.

Open system. a computing environment of hardware and software products and technologies developed in accordance with publicly available and generally accepted (international) standards. Obligatory properties of open systems:

Information processing 6.1. COMPUTER INFORMATION PROCESSING

Processing is one of the main operations performed on information and is the main means of increasing its volume and diversity. To process information using technical means, it is presented in a formalized form. in the form of data structures (“information objects”), which are a certain abstraction of a fragment of the real world.

Abstraction (from Latin “abstraction”) is one of the main operations of information processing that take place in the real world. Abstraction implies singling out the features and relations, which are the most essential from the processing point of view. So, for example, information about a student, necessary to keep record of his progress, can be represented by a set of such identifying data as last name, first name, patronymic, number of academic group. Characteristics unimportant for the given task, such as height, weight, hair color, etc., will not be taken into account when processing data. п., characteristics which are not essential for this particular task, such as height, weight, hair color, etc., will not be taken into account. Information processing. obtaining some “information objects” (data structures) from other ones by executing some algorithms. The executor of the algorithm is an abstract or real (technical, biological or biotechnical) system, capable of performing the actions prescribed by the algorithm.

Different types of computing machines are used for mechanization and automation of information processing and calculations, performed in accordance with a given algorithm: mechanical, electrical, electronic (ECM), hydraulic, pneumatic, optical and combined. In modern computer science the basic executor of algorithms is a computer, also called a computer. computer). Computer. an electronic device designed to automate the process of algorithmic information processing and computation. Depending on the form of representation of the information to be processed, computing machines fall into three large classes: Digital computing machines (DCC), which process information represented in digital form; ■ Analog computing machines (AVM), which process information represented as continuously varying values of a physical quantity (electrical voltage, current, etc.); ■ Analog machines (AVM), which process information represented as continuously varying values of a physical quantity (electrical voltage, current, etc.).

д.Hybrid-computing machines (HMC) including both analogue and digital computing devices. The functioning of an ABM is based on the principle of simulation. Thus, when using as a model of some electronic circuit problem, each variable of the problem is assigned to a certain variable of the electronic circuit. In this case the basis for constructing such a model is isomoism (similarity) of the problem in question and the corresponding electronic model. According to their computational power, AVMs are most suitable for solving mathematical problems containing differential equations, which do not require complex logic. Unlike Computers, the accuracy of which is determined by their digit capacity, the accuracy of computing on the ABM is limited and is characterized by the quality of manufacturing element base and basic units. At the same time for a whole class of problems the speed of problem solving on the ABM can be significantly higher than on the CPU. This is due to the parallel principle of problem solving on the ABM, when the result of the solution is obtained instantly and simultaneously at all points of the model. This feature determines the use of ABM in closed-loop automatic control systems and for solving problems in real time. Hybrid computers, containing both analog and digital computing devices, combine the advantages of both AVMs and Computers. In such machines digital devices are usually used for control and performing logic operations, and analog devices are used for solving differential equations. Since the vast majority of computers are now digital, hereafter we will use the word “computer” or “computer” to mean “digital computer”. To process analog information on such a computer it is firstly converted into a digital form (see Fig. п. 6.2). A modern computer as a real data processing system has a number of features in common with the abstract algorithmic system. the Turing machine (MT) discussed in the previous chapter: Like the MT-model the computer has a finite set of commands that underlie the implementation and execution of each algorithm; like the MT-model the computer functions discretely (in tact) under the control of a program stored in the main memory; ■ the control mechanism of the computer is similar in its function in general terms to the control mechanism of the MT-model.

But as compared to МТ-models the computers have a considerably more complicated organization and a wide set of larger commands that allows effective representation of various algorithms of tasks to be solved. over, each computer can simulate any MT, being potentially universal and having the opportunity to increase the memory in necessary volumes. Potentiality is explained by the fact that no computer can be considered universal in the sense of computability of an arbitrary, partially recursive function, t. е. there is a class of unsolvable tasks for it provided its resources (primarily memory) remain unchanged. Hardware, the basis of modern computers, is a complex of electronic and electromechanical elements and devices and the principle of computer information processing consists in executing a program (Software). a formalized description of a processing algorithm in the form of a sequence of commands that control the processing process. A command is a binary code that defines the action of a computer system to perform some operation. Operation is a complex of technological operations performed on information by one of the program commands. The main operations in information processing on the computer are arithmetic and logical. Arithmetic operations include all kinds of program-defined mathematical operations on integers, fractions, and floating-point numbers. Logical operations provide operations on logical values with a logical result. In computing systems a sequence of operations constituting the task of information processing is called a process. For example, processing of some text with an editor program is a process, and editing of another text with the same program is a different process even if the same copy of the program is used. A process is defined by a corresponding program, a set of data which can be read, written and used while executing the process, and a process descriptor that describes the current state of any computer resource assigned to the process.

Read more:  How To Scan Documents From A Printer To A Computer

Information processing. Processing of information is performed on a PC, as a rule, in a decentralized way at the places where primary information appears

Information processing Data processing is performed on PCs, as a rule, in a decentralized manner, in places where primary information occurs, where workplaces of specialists from certain management services are automated (the logistics and sales department, the chief engineer department, the design department, the accounting department, the planning department etc.).п.). Processing, however, can be done not only stand-alone, but also in computing networks, using a set of PC software and information arrays to solve functional problems.

Data processing deals with the transformation of data and its display.

Data transformation procedures on a logical level are algorithms and programs for processing data and their structures. This includes standard procedures such as sorting, searching, creating and converting statistical and dynamic data structures and also non-standard procedures conditioned by algorithms and data conversion programs for solving specific information tasks. The models of data display procedures are computer programs of data conversion, represented by machine codes, into the human perceptible information, carrying in itself the semantic In modern computers the data can be reflected in the form of text information, in the form of diagrams, images, sound, using multimedia means, which integrate all basic methods of display in the computer.

Data display procedure. One of the most important in information technology. Without the ability to perceive the result of information processing by human senses, this result would remain a thing in itself (because we do not feel the machine representation of information).

In modern information technology in the reproduction of information preference is given to graphic display modes (as opposed to historically earlier text modes) as the most universal. The graphic mode allows to display any graphics (because letters and digits are graphic objects too); the scale, projection, color, etc. can be changed.д. he development of information technologies with respect to information input and output follows the path of creating object-oriented systems in which system configuration, programming of functional tasks, information input and output are performed using graphical objects displayed on the display screen (examples include the widespread Windows graphical interface, object-oriented languages Delphi, Java, etc.).д.).

Displaying information on the display screen as graphical objects (graphs, geometrical figures, images, etc.). д.) is called computer graphics.

During problem solving on the computer in accordance with the machine program, results information is generated, which is further used in the decision-making stage.

Decision making in an automated organizational management system, as a rule, is carried out by a specialist with or without technical means, but in the latter case, based on a thorough analysis of the resultant information obtained from the computer. The task of decision-making is complicated by the fact that the specialist has to look for the most acceptable solution out of the set of acceptable solutions, minimizing the loss of resources (time, labor, material, etc.), which can be achieved with the help of a computer.д.). Thanks to the use of personal computers and terminal devices the analytical character of the processed data is increased and a gradual transition to optimal decision making automation in the process of user dialogue with the computer system is provided. This is facilitated by the use of new technologies of expert decision support systems.

Data processing model The model of data processing includes the formalized description of the procedures of organization of computing process, data conversion and data display. By the organization of computational process we understand the management of computer resources (memory, processor, external devices) in solving data processing problems. This procedure is formalized in the form of algorithms and programs of system management. Complexes of such algorithms and programs received the name of operating systems.

Operating system (OS). A set of programs that organize the computing process in a computer system.

Computing system. A set of hardware and software of the computers, interacting to solve the information processing tasks.

To perform the functions of data processing subsystems electronic computers of different classes are used. At present when creating automated information technologies three main classes of computers are used: at the upper level. large multipurpose computers (according to foreign classification. Mainframes), capable of accumulating and processing colossal amounts of source data and used as mainframe computers; on the secondary level. client computers (servers); at the lower level. personal computers or controlling computers. Data processing, t.е. Their transformation and display, is done with the help of problem-solving programs in the subject area for which the information technology is created.

studopedia.Org. Studopedia.Org. 2014-2022. Studopedia is not the author of the material that is posted. But provides a free use of (0.025 с).

Presentation on: Computer Science. Computer. a tool for information processing. Types of information processed by a computer

no. slide 1

GU “Professional Lyceum ¹6” of Education Administration of Akmola Oblast THEME: Informatics. Computer as a tool for information processing. Types of information processed by a computer.Lyudmila Ivanovna Rausch Informatics Teacher Astrakhan

No. of slide 2

INFORMATICS is the science that studies how information is represented, processed, used, stored, and transmitted using computers. This science appeared in the second half of the twentieth century, its development is associated with the appearance of electronic computer technology. The term informatics comes from the French words information and automata and means “information automatics”.The English-language version of the term Computer science, which means “computer science,” is also widely used.In 1978. The International Scientific Congress officially assigned the term “informatics” to the fields related to development, creation, use and maintenance of information processing systems, including computers and their software, as well as organizational, commercial, administrative and socio-political aspects of computerization. mass implementation of computer technology in all areas of human life. Thus, computer science is based on computer technology and is unthinkable without it.

No. slide 3

The main applications of computer science: development of computer systems and software; information theory, which studies the processes associated with the transmission, reception, transformation and storage of information; methods of artificial intelligence, which allow creating programs to solve problems that require certain intellectual efforts while performing them by humans (logical inference, learning, speech understanding, visual perception, games, etc.).); systems analysis, which consists in analyzing the purpose of the system to be designed and establishing the requirements that it must meet; techniques of computer graphics, animation, multimedia; a variety of applications covering manufacturing, education, medicine, commerce, agriculture and all types of economic and social activity.

# slide 4

Informatics can be thought of as consisting of two parts: technical tools; software tools.Hardware, or computer hardware, is referred to in English by the word Hardware, which translates to “solid products”. And for software tools a very appropriate word Softwage (literally, “products”) was chosen, which emphasizes the equivalence of software and the machine itself and, at the same time, the ability of software to be modified and adapted.

information, processing, using, computer

No. slide 5

Computer (e.g. computer); software (e.g. software tools). computer) is a programmable electronic device capable of processing data and making calculations, and other character manipulation tasks.

No. of slide 6

There are two basic classes of computers: digital computers that process data in the form of numerical binary codes; analog computers that process continuously varying physical quantities (electrical voltage, time, etc.) and analog computers that process data in the form of binary codes.д.), which are analogs of the quantities being calculated.As at present the overwhelming majority of computers are digital, we will further consider only this class of computers and will use the word “computer” in the sense of a “digital computer”.

# slide 7

The computers are based on hardware (HardWare) built mainly with the use of electronic and electro-mechanical elements and devices. The principle of computer operation consists in executing programs (SoftWare). predetermined, precisely defined sequences of arithmetic, logical and other operations.

#slide 8

COMPUTER SCIENCE SUBJECT. information processes. INFORMATION PROCESSES. are processes of transmission, processing and accumulation of information in the form of signs and signals.Information processes are found:- in living things,- in technical devices,- in human communication,- in telecommunications,- in society.

# Slide 9

INFORMATION is information about someone or something transmitted in the form of signs and signals. The term “INFORMATION” is used in many sciences and in many fields of human activity. It comes from the Latin word “Informatio”, which means “information, clarification, explanation”.As we have already found out, mankind, since its separation from the animal world, has devoted a considerable part of its time and attention to information processes.

No. slide 10

Properties of information: Dualism of information. characterizes its duality.Information completeness. describes the degree of sufficiency of the data to make a decision or create new data on the basis of the existing data.Adequacy. expresses the degree of correspondence of the image created with the help of information to the real object, process, phenomenon.Relevance. information exists in time, as all information processes exist in time. Information that is relevant today may become completely unnecessary after some time has passed.

Topic 2.2. “Basic information processes and their implementation with the help of computers: information processing

Theme 2.2. “Basic information processes and their implementation using computers: information processing” Plan 1. information retrieval 2. information processing 3. information storage 4. archives 5. control questions 1. information retrieval We have to admit that our senses, our main tool for cognizing the world, are not the most sophisticated devices. They are not always accurate, and not all information can be perceived. It is no coincidence that rough, approximate calculations are referred to as “by eye”. Without special instruments, it is unlikely that mankind would have been able to penetrate the secrets of the living cell or send space probes to Mars and Venus.

Topic 2.2. “Basic information processes and their implementation using computers: information processing” Plan 1. information retrieval 2. information processing 3. information storage 4. archives 5. control questions 1. Information retrieval We have to admit that our sensory organs, our main tool for learning about the world, are not the most perfect devices. They are not always exact and are not capable of perceiving all the information. It is not by chance that crude, approximate calculations are referred to as “by eye”. Without special instruments, it is unlikely that mankind would have succeeded in penetrating into the mysteries of the living cell or send space probes to Mars and Venus. All human activity involves various actions with information, and a variety of technical devices help. One of the oldest structures used for astronomical information is located in England near Salisbury. It’s Stonehenge, the “hanging stones.”. It was built in about the second century B.C. э. Stonehenge is made up of upright stone posts arranged in concentric rings. On the vertical stones lie horizontal bars, a kind of arch. 1963, using the latest research methods, it was established that the stone arches give directions to the extreme positions of the Sun and Moon, and the 56 white wells help predict the timing of Solar and Lunar eclipses. One of the oldest devices is a scale. They are used to give people information about the mass of an object. Another of our old acquaintances, the thermometer, is used to measure the temperature of its surroundings. Information retrieval Retrieval is the extraction of stored information. what search methods do you know? Information search methods: direct observation; communication with experts on the issue you are interested in; reading relevant literature; watching videos, TV programs; listening to radio programs, audio tapes; work in libraries and archives; request to information systems, databases and computer data banks; 2. Information processing In the examples below, each next element is obtained by some rule. Guess this rule. 1. 2. Victory, lunch, trouble, food. (Answer. Discarding of the first letter of the word.) 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13. (Answer. Each number starting with the third is equal to the sum of the previous two (Fibonacci numbers).) ? Which information process did you implement while solving the problem? Processing Consider more examples of human information processing. Examples of information processing A student solves a problem. The calculator performs calculations. An artist draws a portrait. What can be seen in common in all of the examples given? There are three components to information processing: Input Information Rule Output What is the definition of information processing? Information processing. the transformation of information from one type to another, carried out according to strict formal rules Any type of information can be processed. The rules of processing can be very diverse. information Systems in which only input and output quantities are available to the observer, and the structure and internal processes are unknown, are called black boxes. How does a person process information? thinks, the thinking process is carried out. How a computer processes information? The PC includes an information-processing device, the word processor. ?which programs we use to process information on a PC? Applied Information Processing on a PC Type of information (by Application Program how it is presented) Textual Numerical Graphical The information created and received must be stored. What do you know about storing information?? WORD word processor Excel spreadsheet processor PAINT raster graphics editor Information storage Information storage is a process as old as the life of human civilization. Already in ancient times, man faced the need to store information: notches in trees so as not to get lost during the hunt; counting objects with the help of stones, knots; images of animals and hunting episodes on the walls of caves. The process of long-term storage of information plays an important role in human life and is subject to constant improvement. ? What is the definition of information storage? Information storage is a way of information distribution in space and time. how a person stores information? remembers, records. how a computer stores information? a PC includes an information storage device, a hard drive. there is so-called external memory of a computer. digital information carriers. 2 An information carrier is a physical medium that directly stores information. The primary carrier of information for humans is their own biological memory (the human brain). A person’s own memory can be called operative memory. Here the word “operative” is a synonym for the word “fast”. Learned knowledge is reproduced by a person instantly. We can also call our own memory our internal memory because it is held inside of us by our brain. Information carrier is a strictly defined part of a specific information system, serving for intermediate storage or transfer of information. What are the main repositories of information for man, for society? Main information repositories For the individual Memory For society Libraries, video libraries, phono libraries, archives, patent offices, museums, art galleries Information storage on PC An information system is an information repository equipped with procedures for entering, searching and placing and issuing information Computer program storage Databases Information search systems Electronic encyclopedias Database management system Access Yandex, Google Wikipedia, The Great Encyclopedia of Cyril and Methodius Media Library Media Library Storing information on external carriers. ? What external storage media are there? Storing very large amounts of information is justified only if the necessary information can be found quickly and the information can be accessed in an accessible form. Magnetic tape is a recording medium consisting of a thin, flexible tape with a backing and a magnetic working layer. The performance of magnetic tape is characterized by its recording sensitivity and signal distortion during recording and playback. The most widely used type of tape is multilayer magnetic tape with a working layer of iron gamma oxide (Фе2О3), chromium dioxide (СrО2), and cobalt modified iron gamma oxide particles magnetized in the direction of the writing magnetization. Where magnetic tapes are used? Disk drives are direct-access computer media. The concept of direct access means that a PC can “address” the track where the section with the information it is looking for begins or where new information needs to be written. Floppy disk drives are very diverse: Floppy Disks, aka floppy disks, aka floppy 3 Some time ago floppy disks were the most popular media for transferring information from computer to computer, because Internet was a rarity in those days, computer networks too, and CD-ROM drives were very expensive. Floppy disks are still used today, but only rarely. Mainly for storage of various keys (e.g. for work with “klientbank” system) and for transmission of various reporting information to the state supervisory services. Floppy disk is a portable magnetic storage medium used for repeated recording and storing data of relatively small size. This kind of storage medium was particularly common in the 1970’s and early 2000’s. Instead of the term “floppy” is sometimes used abbreviation GMD. “floppy magnetic disk” (respectively, a device to work with floppy disks called NGMD. “drive on flexible magnetic disks”, slang variant. flopodovod, flopik, flopar from English floppydisk or even “cookie”). Floppy disk is usually a flexible plastic plate coated with a ferromagnetic layer, hence the English name “floppy disk”. This plate is placed in a plastic case which protects the magnetic layer from physical damage. The shell is either flexible or rugged. Floppy diskettes are written and read with a special device, the floppy disk drive (floppy disk drive). The floppy disk usually has a write protect feature, whereby you can give read-only access to the data. 3.5″ appearance. ? what size floppy disk drive? 1.44mb, but there are also 720kb. Optical CD drives: A compact disc (“CD”, “Shape CD”, “CDROM”, “CD ROM”) is an optical storage medium in the shape of a disc with a hole in the center, the information from which is read by a laser. The CD was originally created for digital audio storage (t. н. AudioCD), but is now widely used as a general purpose storage device (t. н. CDROM). Audio CDs are different in format from data CDs and CD players can usually only play them (on a computer, of course, you can read both kinds of CDs). There are discs containing both audio information and data. you can listen to them on a CD player and read them on a computer. Optical discs usually have a polycarbonate or glass heat-treated base. The working layer of optical disks is made in the form of thin films of light melting metals (tellurium) or alloys (tellurium selenium, tellurium carbon, tellurium lead, etc.) and organic dyes.), organic dyes. Information surface of optical disks is covered with a millimeter layer of a strong transparent plastic (polycarbonate). In the process of recording and playback on optical discs the role of a signal transducer is performed by a laser beam focused on the working layer of the disc in a spot with a diameter of about 1 micron. Turning the disc the laser beam follows the disc track, which is also about 1 µm wide. The ability to focus the beam into a small spot size allows you to generate 13 µm marks on the disk. Lasers (argon, helium cadmium, etc.) are used as a light source.). As a result the recording density is several orders of magnitude higher than the limit with magnetic recording. The information capacity of an optical disc is up to 1 GB (with a disc diameter of 130 mm) and 24 GB (with a diameter of 300 mm). Magneto-optical CDs of the RW (Re Writeble) type are also widely used as a data carrier. The information is recorded by a magnetic head using a laser beam at the same time. The laser beam heats up a point on the disk and the electromagnet changes the magnetic orientation of this point. The readout is performed with a lower power laser beam. 4 In the second half of the 1990s, new, very promising, high-capacity (up to 17 Gbytes) digital versatile video discs like DVDROM, DVDRAM, DVDR appeared. There are also other varieties of disk storage media, such as magneto-optical disks, but because of their low prevalence, we will not consider them. 4. Archives. Many people remember when a hard disc (hard drive) was just a few tens of megabytes, exactly megabytes, whereas nowadays a hard drive is a few hundred gigabytes and there are even terabytes. The thing is that increasing the capacity of hard drives, we thereby increase the size of programs that we create. At the moment, modern hard drives can store a huge amount of information: many hours of listening to music, hundreds of movies, all kinds of computer games, programs, and so on. So the question of archiving data and compressing files is as relevant as it was 10 years ago, and 20 years ago. ? Why is it necessary to compress files into an archive?? Yes, because you can put several files in one file and archives take much less space on the disk. ? What is data archiving and compression?? To use a crude analogy, data archiving is similar to milk powder production, the process of removing water from milk, which can then be added if necessary. Data has water of information, there are a lot of repetitions in the files, this is what is used for data compression. data compression is the process of compressing files to free up disk space. Test files are especially well-compressed, if there are a lot of repetitions, compression can be achieved up to 10 times. Color graphics files are less compressed. We can say that, on average, archivers give an advantage of 23 times. A program that compresses a text file is called a packer or archiver. The archiving programs archive not only text files, but also programs, audio, graphics, video and other files. In the process of data archiving, an archive file is created that is smaller in size than the compressed files. After you create an archive, you can delete the compressed files, thereby freeing up disk space. If you need to restore the archived files to their original state again, you can unpack the archive, thus returning the files to their original place. The archive can be deleted, so it does not occupy unnecessary disk space. There are a sufficient number of archivers and the same number of types of archive files. Among them the most common are ZIP and RAR. If you do not have any archiver on your computer, you can use the built-in Windows archiver, which is responsible for working with zip archives. The built-in Windows archiver is unable to password protect the archive and cannot create a self-extracting archive or cut a large archive into pieces to fit on floppy discs or CDs. So if you want to rid yourself of these limitations, you will need to install a separate archiver program on your computer. ? which archivers do you know? 7ZIP is a great archiver by Igor Pavlov. Can create archives used in other operating systems and extract files from all archive formats. 5 WinRAR is one of the best archivers in the world author Evgeny Roshal. Can create both RAR and ZIP archives. ? what is a self-extracting archive? A self-extracting archive is an archive which is unpacked without any archiver, i.e. independently and ends in.ehe. Such archive can be created with the help of the WinRAR program window or by using the context menu of the archived object. Besides the archiver can do many useful things, for example, you can create a ZIP archive in RAR, although RAR archives are smaller, close the access to your archive data by protecting it with a password, and much more. 5. control questions 1. What is an information retrieval? 2. How information is stored at the moment? 3. What affects the information process? 4. What external storage media do you know about? 5. What is direct-access external storage media?? 6. What are the archives for?? 7. what is a self-extracting archive? 6