Apple Watch red line. How to Silence an Apple Watch? A Few Options You Should Know About

MACD Indicator Explained, with Formula, Examples, and Limitations

Brian Dolan’s decades of experience as a trader and strategist have exposed him to all manner of global macro-economic market data, news and events. His expertise spans the spectrum from technical analysis to global macroeconomic data and events.

Samantha Silberstein is a Certified Financial Planner, FINRA Series 7 and 63 licensed holder, State of California life, accident, and health insurance licensed agent, and CFA. She spends her days working with hundreds of employees from non-profit and higher education organizations on their personal financial plans.

Katrina Ávila Munichiello is an experienced editor, writer, fact-checker, and proofreader with more than fourteen years of experience working with print and online publications.

What Is Moving Average Convergence/Divergence (MACD)?

Moving average convergence/divergence (MACD, or MAC-D) is a trend-following momentum indicator that shows the relationship between two exponential moving averages (EMAs) of a security’s price. The MACD line is calculated by subtracting the 26-period EMA from the 12-period EMA.

The result of that calculation is the MACD line. A nine-day EMA of the MACD line is called the signal line, which is then plotted on top of the MACD line, which can function as a trigger for buy or sell signals. Traders may buy the security when the MACD line crosses above the signal line and sell—or short—the security when the MACD line crosses below the signal line. MACD indicators can be interpreted in several ways, but the more common methods are crossovers, divergences, and Rapid rises/falls.

Key Takeaways

  • The moving average convergence/divergence (MACD, or MAC-D) line is calculated by subtracting the 26-period exponential moving average (EMA) from the 12-period EMA. The signal line is a nine-period EMA of the MACD line.
  • MACD is best used with daily periods, where the traditional settings of 26/12/9 days is the default.
  • MACD triggers technical signals when the MACD line crosses above the signal line (to buy) or falls below it (to sell).
  • MACD can help gauge whether a security is overbought or oversold, alerting traders to the strength of a directional move, and warning of a potential price reversal.
  • MACD can also alert investors to bullish/bearish divergences (e.g., when a new high in price is not confirmed by a new high in MACD, and vice versa), suggesting a potential failure and reversal.
  • After a signal line crossover, it is recommended to wait for three or four days to confirm that it is not a false move.

MACD Formula

MACD = 12-Period EMA − 26-Period EMA \text=\text-\text 26-Period EMAMACD = 12-Period EMA − 26-Period EMA

MACD is calculated by subtracting the long-term EMA (26 periods) from the short-term EMA (12 periods). An EMA is a type of moving average (MA) that places a greater weight and significance on the most recent data points.

The exponential moving average is also referred to as the exponentially weighted moving average. An exponentially weighted moving average reacts more significantly to recent price changes than a simple moving average (SMA), which applies an equal weight to all observations in the period.

Learning from MACD

MACD has a positive value (shown as the blue line in the lower chart) whenever the 12-period EMA (indicated by the red line on the price chart) is above the 26-period EMA (the blue line in the price chart) and a negative value when the 12-period EMA is below the 26-period EMA. The level of distance that MACD is above or below its baseline indicates that the distance between the two EMAs is growing.

In the following chart, you can see how the two EMAs applied to the price chart correspond to the MACD (blue) crossing above or below its baseline (red dashed) in the indicator below the price chart.

MACD is often displayed with a histogram (see the chart below) that graphs the distance between MACD and its signal line. If MACD is above the signal line, the histogram will be above the MACD’s baseline, or zero line. If MACD is below its signal line, the histogram will be below the MACD’s baseline. Traders use the MACD’s histogram to identify when bullish or bearish momentum is high—and possibly for overbought/oversold signals.

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MACD vs. Relative Strength

The relative strength index (RSI) aims to signal whether a market is considered to be overbought or oversold in relation to recent price levels. The RSI is an oscillator that calculates average price gains and losses over a given period of time. The default time period is 14 periods with values bounded from 0 to 100. A reading above 70 suggests an overbought condition, while a reading below 30 is considered oversold, with both potentially signaling a top is forming, or vice versa (a bottom is forming).

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The MACD lines, however, do not have concrete overbought/oversold levels like the RSI and other oscillator studies. Rather, they function on a relative basis. That’s to say an investor or trader should FOCUS on the level and direction of the MACD/signal lines compared with preceding price movements in the security at hand, as shown below.

MACD measures the relationship between two EMAs, while the RSI measures price change in relation to recent price highs and lows. These two indicators are often used together to give analysts a more complete technical picture of a market.

These indicators both measure momentum in a market, but because they measure different factors, they sometimes give contrary indications. For example, the RSI may show a reading above 70 (overbought) for a sustained period of time, indicating a market is overextended to the buy side in relation to recent prices, while the MACD indicates that the market is still increasing in buying momentum. Either indicator may signal an upcoming trend change by showing divergence from price (price continues higher while the indicator turns lower, or vice versa).

Limitations of MACD and Confirmation

One of the main problems with a moving average divergence is that it can often signal a possible reversal, but then no actual reversal happens—it produces a false positive. The other problem is that divergence doesn’t forecast all reversals. In other words, it predicts too many reversals that don’t occur and not enough real price reversals.

This suggests confirmation should be sought by trend-following indicators, such as the Directional Movement Index (DMI) system and its key component, the Average Directional Index (ADX). The ADX is designed to indicate whether a trend is in place or not, with a reading above 25 indicating a trend is in place (in either direction) and a reading below 20 suggesting no trend is in place.

Investors following MACD crossovers and divergences should double-check with the ADX before making a trade on an MACD signal. For example, while MACD may be showing a bearish divergence, a check of the ADX may tell you that a trend higher is in place—in which case you would avoid the bearish MACD trade signal and wait to see how the market develops over the next few days.

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On the other hand, if MACD is showing a bearish crossover and the ADX is in non-trending territory (25) and has likely shown a peak and reversal on its own, you could have good cause to take the bearish trade.

Furthermore, false positive divergences often occur when the price of an asset moves sideways in a consolidation, such as in a range or triangle pattern following a trend. A slowdown in the momentum—sideways movement or slow trending movement—of the price will cause MACD to pull away from its prior extremes and gravitate toward the zero lines even in the absence of a true reversal. Again, double-check the ADX to determine whether a trend is in place and also look at what price is doing before acting.

Example of MACD Crossovers

As shown on the following chart, when MACD falls below the signal line, it is a bearish signal indicating that it may be time to sell. Conversely, when MACD rises above the signal line, the signal is bullish, suggesting that the price of the asset might experience upward momentum. Some traders wait for a confirmed cross above the signal line before entering a position to reduce the chances of being faked out and entering a position too early.

Crossovers are more reliable when they conform to the prevailing trend. If MACD crosses above its signal line after a brief downside correction within a longer-term uptrend, it qualifies as a bullish confirmation and the likely continuation of the uptrend.

If MACD crosses below its signal line following a brief move higher within a longer-term downtrend, traders would consider that a bearish confirmation.

Example of Divergence

When MACD forms highs or lows that that exceed the corresponding highs and lows on the price, it is called a divergence. A bullish divergence appears when MACD forms two rising lows that correspond with two falling lows on the price. This is a valid bullish signal when the long-term trend is still positive.

Some traders will look for bullish divergences even when the long-term trend is negative because they can signal a change in the trend, although this technique is less reliable.

When MACD forms a series of two falling highs that correspond with two rising highs on the price, a bearish divergence has been formed. A bearish divergence that appears during a long-term bearish trend is considered confirmation that the trend is likely to continue.

Some traders will watch for bearish divergences during long-term bullish trends because they can signal weakness in the trend. However, it is not as reliable as a bearish divergence during a bearish trend.

Example of Rapid Rises or Falls

When MACD rises or falls rapidly (the shorter-term moving average pulls away from the longer-term moving average), it is a signal that the security is overbought or oversold and will soon return to normal levels. Traders will often combine this analysis with the RSI or other technical indicators to verify overbought or oversold conditions.

It is not uncommon for investors to use the MACD’s histogram the same way that they may use the MACD itself. Positive or negative crossovers, divergences, and Rapid rises or falls can be identified on the histogram as well. Some experience is needed before deciding which is best in any given situation, because there are timing differences between signals on the MACD and its histogram.

How do traders use moving average convergence/divergence (MACD)?

Traders use MACD to identify changes in the direction or strength of a stock’s price trend. MACD can seem complicated at first glance, because it relies on additional statistical concepts such as the exponential moving average (EMA). But fundamentally, MACD helps traders detect when the recent momentum in a stock’s price may signal a change in its underlying trend. This can help traders decide when to enter, add to, or exit a position.

Is MACD a leading indicator or a lagging indicator?

MACD is a lagging indicator. After all, all the data used in MACD is based on the historical price action of the stock. Because it is based on historical data, it must necessarily lag the price. However, some traders use MACD histograms to predict when a change in trend will occur. For these traders, this aspect of MACD might be viewed as a leading indicator of future trend changes.

What is a MACD bullish/bearish divergence?

A MACD positive (or bullish) divergence is a situation in which MACD does not reach a new low, despite the fact that the price of the stock has reached a new low. This is seen as a bullish trading signal—hence, the term “positive/bullish divergence.” If the opposite scenario occurs—the stock price reaches a new high, but MACD fails to do so—this would be seen as a bearish indicator and termed “negative/bearish divergence.” In both cases, the setups suggest that the move higher/lower will not last, so it is important to look at other technical studies, like the relative strength index (RSI) discussed above.

The Bottom Line

MACD is a valuable tool of the moving-average type, best used with daily data. Just as a crossover of the nine- and 14-day SMAs may generate a trading signal for some traders, a crossover of the MACD above or below its signal line may also generate a directional signal.

MACD is based on EMAs (more weight is placed on the most recent data), which means that it can react very quickly to changes of direction in the current price move. But that quickness can also be a two-edged sword. Crossovers of MACD lines should be noted, but confirmation should be sought from other technical signals, such as the RSI, or perhaps a few candlestick price charts. Further, because it is a lagging indicator, it argues that confirmation in subsequent price action should develop before taking the signal.

How to Silence an Apple Watch? A Few Options You Should Know About

Apple Watch users can testify that they are often surprised in public by a forgotten alarm or an unexpected Siri response. Even though you have the first ever Apple Watch, it can still surprise you in public with notifications and alarms.

So, how to silence an Apple Watch ? In this guide, we will cover several ways to silence your Apple Watch. So, let’s get started.

Cover Your Apple Watch with Your Palm

It doesn’t matter if it is an alert, an alarm, or Siri notifying you about something, you can cover your Watch with your palm and it will stop all sounds. Apple recommends covering the watch for three seconds, however, as soon as your palm gets in contact with the Watch’s face, it silences all the sounds.

But, there’s a catch. It doesn’t work automatically. You have to choose this in the settings for it to work. Here’s how you do it:

  • Go to the Apple Watch app on your iPhone
  • Click on Sound and haptics
  • Switch on Cover to Mute

How to Silence Your Apple Watch

Covering your Watch with your palm will only silence sounds for the moment. Here’s how you put it in silent mode:

  • Go to the Control Center by swiping up on the Watch Face
  • Click on the bell icon. It activated Silent Mode and when it is switched on, the icon will change color and have a slash running through the bell
  • You’d still be able to receive haptic notifications on silent mode. And, timers and alarms will still make a sound when you are charging the Watch
  • Go to the Settings app on the Watch and switch off the Haptic Alerts, or go to the Watch app on your iPhone and tap on Sounds and Haptics to turn them off.

How to Turn On Do Not Disturb

If you want to know how to silence an Apple Watch for good, this is the feature you are looking for. It stops all the alerts and calls from sounding or lighting up your Watch. Here’s how you do it:

How to Hide the Red Dot on Apple Watch

  • Go to the Control Center by swiping up on your Watch face
  • Click on the curved moon icon
  • Now, you have to select how long you want to keep the Do Not Disturb mode on. By clicking ‘On’ it will stay on unless you manually switch it off. However, there are options such as ‘On for 1 hour’ and ‘On until this evening.’ These options turn the Do Not Disturb mode off automatically after the chosen period of time.
  • After you switch on Do Not Disturb, the crescent moon icon will move to the center of your Watch face.

Alarms are an exception. They will sound even if the Do Not Disturb mode is on.


All of the above settings do not affect Siri. If Siri remotely hears “Hey Siri,” it will talk to you even if you have Do Not Disturb or Silent Mode on.

The best way to stop Siri from talking to you is to switch this feature off completely. This is how you do it:

If you want Siri to listen manually, you can press and hold the Digital Crown and talk.

The Takeaway

While notifications and sounds are easy to get your attention, they can also be pretty disturbing, especially if you receive a lot of them. In this guide, we mentioned several options as to how to silence an Apple Watch. All these options with steps are quite simple to follow and hardly take a minute to execute.

How do you silence a call on your Apple Watch?

The quickest way is to cover the Watch face with the palm of your hand. It silences all the sounds. However, for it to work, you have to make sure that the “Cover to Mute” setting is turned on in the Settings app on your Apple Watch.

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What is Haptics on Apple Watch?

Haptics tap on your wrist to alert you when you receive a notification, also known as haptic feedback. If you can’t feel the taps, you can increase the intensity of these alerts.

How does the silent mode icon appear on the Apple Watch?

The Silent mode on the Apple Watch looks like a bell icon. When the bell icon is gray, notifications will make a sound and then it is red with a line running through it, it won’t make a sound, but will vibrate and light up when you get a notification.

The GMT Watch, Explained

The GMT watch is brilliant not because of its complexity but because of its simple ingenuity. Here’s what you need to know about it.

If ever there were a hyped watch complication, it’s the GMT in the 2020s. It’s popularity is justified on several counts: complications make a watch more interesting, and the GMT is one of the most accessible steps above a watch with just basic time telling — at least, it’s more affordable than the ever-popular chronograph. over, the extra hand and common addition of the (often colorful) rotating bezel lend themselves to fun sporty designs. But most of all, a GMT is actually useful in modern life.

There’s a lot to unpack in all those great reasons to want a GMT, and that’s exactly what we do below. Here’s what you need to know about GMT watches, where they come from, how they work and why they’re cool.

Origin of the GMT Watch

On May 2, 1952, 36 people boarded a De Havilland Comet jet owned by the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) and flew nonstop from London to Johannesburg. The Jet Age had officially begun. Pan Am quickly ordered 20 of Boeing‘s new 707 jetliners and built its WorldPort terminal at JFK while TWA countered with its own World Flight Center. It was a brave new world that saw cigarettes on planes but not a roller bag to be found. People were suddenly able to fly across oceans and time zones in a day, which also introduced the decidedly modern ailment known as jet lag.

The pilots flying these long haul routes needed a way to keep track of time, both local time and the time in the place from where they departed. Introduced in 1953, the Glycine Airman was made to meet their needs with a watch displaying the time in 24-hour (rather than 12-hour) format, featuring a rotating bezel and 24-hour markings that could be used to track a second time zone. It’s a cool and interesting solution (and the watch is still available today), but it wasn’t the one that caught on.

Pan Am approached Rolex, the watch brand that Hillary wore up Everest and Cousteau wore in the deep, and requested a watch built for this new breed of pilots. In 1954, the GMT-Master, a watch that could mechanically track two time zones simultaneously, was born.

What does GMT stand for?

Though Rolex’s approach was novel, the concept upon which it was based was not new in the 1950s. It dates back to 1884 when an international convention declared Greenwich, England as the “Mean Time” against which the rest of the Earth’s time zones would be compared. But GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) was established in an era of slow boat travel, when time zones were crossed over days and weeks, not hours. Jet airplanes changed all that.

By 1955, the atomic clock had been invented, and in 1960 the US and UK synched their atomic radio time signals into what would become Universal Time Coordinated, or UTC, which effectively replaced that meridian line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich. But the name “GMT” stuck and still somehow conjures up the dawn of the Jet Age, when knowing where you were in relation to a stripe on the ground in Old Blighty was first made important — just as the famous red-and-blue bezel of that first GMT-Master watch on the wrist of a Pan Am captain does.

How does a GMT watch actually work?

The GMT watch is brilliant, not because of its complexity but because of its simple ingenuity. As the movement’s going train (primary series of gears) in a conventional watch is made to spin the hour hand around the dial every 12 hours, all that is required to become a GMT tracker is simply a second hour hand geared to run half as fast and an additional 24-hour time scale. The 24-hour hand circles the dial once a day instead of twice, its tip pointing to the corresponding hour, leaving no confusion as to whether it’s a.m. or p.m.

The iconic red-and-blue “Pepsi” bezel that is so associated with the Rolex GMT-Master was Rolex’s first solution to the two-timing conundrum. The so-called “GMT hand” points to the 24-hour time scale on that bezel (blue for nighttime hours, red for daylight). And because the bezel turns, any hour can be set to correspond to the GMT hand, thus instantly tracking a second time zone, just like Glycine’s solution.

But if the bezel allowed for the tracking of any second time zone, why was the watch called the “GMT” Master? As part of their navigation and communication protocols, pilots always operate on GMT (or UTC) time, to eliminate any confusion. So those Pan Am pilots would always have their 24-hand set to GMT, no matter what their local time was.

If the Breitling Navitimer chronograph was the definitive pilot’s watch of the 1950s, its slide rule bezel and busy dial made it a quaint relic by the time the Jet Age hit its stride in the ’60s. The GMT-Master became the de facto pilot’s watch, and was seen on the wrists of fighter jocks and astronauts alike. But the Rolex, and other watches that followed suit, trickled down to coach class too, as jetset travelers saw the obvious advantage of a two-time zone watch, as well as the image it projected. Wearing it branded one as a traveler, someone who crossed time meridian lines and explored exotic corners of the world.

The earliest GMT watches were simple beasts: the 24-hour hand was anchored to the hour hand so that as you adjusted your local time, the GMT hand moved in tandem, thus tracking the local time as well, but on a 24-hour scale. To set a second time zone, it was thus necessary to turn the bezel. Later, it became possible to set the 24-hour hand independently.

What to look for in a GMT watch

Nowadays, there are more sophisticated movements than those early models, and they can be generally divided into two types. The first type has an independently adjustable GMT hand, meaning it can be set separately from the local time indicated with the hour hand and is not linked to the date function.

The second type links the GMT hand to the minute hand while the normal hour hand is independently adjustable and is linked to the date. The second kind is considered more of a classic GMT watch and is slightly easier for use while traveling, since flipping the hour hand forward or back without messing with the minute hand is quick and easy as your plane touches down in London or Buenos Aires.

While GMT watches were first created for pilots and are historically linked to aviation, they have since taken on a reputation as a consummate adventurer’s watch, useful for the one-watch traveler who wants to touch down in Kinshasa and head straight into the jungle. Good water resistance, rugged cases and legibility are the hallmarks of the new breed of GMT watches.

How to operate a GMT watch

As noted above, there are different kinds of GMT watches but there are often common principles to operating them. For many GMT watches (such as those using ETA or similar movements), the crown is pulled out to the same position as that which sets the date. One direction sets the date and the other advances the GMT hand. This is easy enough, and allows the user to set the second time zone without disturbing the current time.

The 24-hour hand on GMT watches is usually arrow-shaped and brightly colored, making it easy to distinguish.

For something like the Rolex GMT-Master II, however, one position of the crown allows you to adjust only the main time’s hour hand in either direction, whereas the GMT hand must be set along with the main time. There are yet more, fancier methods, but those mentioned here will serve you well in most cases.

Apple Watch Series 7 Tips, Tricks & Hidden Features | You ABSOLUTELY MUST Know!!

These different methods have unofficial names. The first method above is sometimes called a caller (for those at home calling abroad) or office GMT, because it’s easier to set the second time zone while the main time remains untouched. The latter is dubbed a flyer, travel (or traveller) or true GMT by collectors, though that shouldn’t be understood to indicate that any one method is more legitimate than or superior to the other.

So, you’ve got your GMT watch set to two time zones via the above method. Want a third? If it’s the kind of GMT with a rotating 24-hour bezel, just turn the bezel to align the current time in your desired locale to match up with the GMT hand. Presto. You’ve got yourself a deceptively simple watch elegantly displaying no fewer than three time zones. In a world increasingly connected by both travel and communication, there’s still a strong case for a GMT watch’s utility.

watchOS 7: Exploring the Apple GMT Watch Face

Apple’s new watchOS 7 introduces some new watch faces. One of them is called GMT watch face. It’s about time we took a look at that one.

Apple Watch GMT Face

First of all, Apple did not just make this up, in name or design. There is a pre-existing “GMT watch” design that was previously created for specific travel/aviation/astronomy needs. See: “What is a GMT Watch and How Does it Work?”

The GMT watch function is just a second hour hand on the same watch face that’s geared to rotate once every 24 hours — or exactly half as fast as the other hour hand. The second hour hand points to a second time scale that reads to 24 instead of 12, typically located on the innermost portion of the watch dial.

Here’s a look at a physical GMT watch. The red hour hand points to the GMT hour.

This watch face has two dials: a 12-hour inner dial that displays local time, and a 24-hour outer dial that lets you track a second time zone. This watch face is available only on Apple Watch SE and Apple Watch Series 4 and later.

As you can see, it duplicates the design of a classic GMT watch. But because it can, the GMT ring, which actually can be any other time zone, shows the period of daytime and nighttime.


The first edit mode is the standard edit of a watch face. Touch and hold the watch face to go into edit mode. Tap the Edit button. There’s where you can use the Digital Crown to select the color scheme for day/night. This is also where you can add complications, as usual. When done, press the Digital Crown.

The second edit mode is entered by a light touch to the face. Use the Digital Crown to scroll and select the second time zone. Like this:

Tap the checkmark when done. Note that if you don’t see UTC in the list, you may have to add it to your World Clock in the Clock app of your paired iPhone. (For simplicity, here, GMT = UTC. This is no place to get into the technical distinction.)


If you have your default time presentation set to 24-hour time, the GMT ring will honor that. But the inner dial will still honor the GMT watch standard of 12-hour time.

To set 12- or 24-hour time on your Apple Watch, use the Watch app on your iPhone: My Watch (tab) Clock 24-hour Time on/off.

To be clear about the daytime/nighttime ring, verify that the nightime segment, in the first edit mode above, is a darker color than the daytime segment. Like this:

The GMT face is very cool. Let me know if you find anything I didn’t cover.

One thought on “ watchOS 7: Exploring the Apple GMT Watch Face ”

The deep dive is much appreciated.

Yes, the GMT Master is a classic Rolex design, and is available in any number of watches, and was the watch I had planned to get as a graduation gift, until I saw the Breitling; however, I continued to admire it, so was pleased when it debuted on the Apple Watch.

Regarding the settings, I had at first thought it was a bug that Apple hadn’t included GMT as a time zone on that watch face, until I realised that I had not set GMT (or UTC, Zulu) as a time zone in my world clock on the iPhone (I had it on my clock app on my Mac and even my iPad). As soon as I set it, it immediately showed up and I selected it for the 24 hand. Depending on your iPhone regional setting, the clock in the iPhone may automatically set to 24 hour format, but the US setting is 12 hour by default.

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